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  • Cholera Outbreaks - Global

    Cholera Outbreaks reported in this thread from the following countries:
    Angola, Cameroon, Gambia, India, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Sudan, Tanzania, Thailand, Zambia, Zanzibar and Zimbabwe


    <TABLE cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=5 width=10 align=right valign="top"><TBODY><TR><TD></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>Cholera outbreak kills 27 in southern cities
    From correspondents in Khartoum, Sudan
    CHOLERA has been confirmed in two southern Sudanese cities in a rapidly spreading outbreak that has claimed 27 lives, UN officials said.

    With cities full to the brim of returning southerners following a 2005 peace deal, the bare infrastructure cannot cope and two-thirds of the population drink unclean water, a carrier of the disease.

    "It's particularly alarming in Juba, where a city of at least 250,000 depends to a great extent on untreated water from the Nile," said the UN children's agency (UNICEF) spokesman Ben Parker.

    In less than two weeks, 1433 cases have been reported and at least 27 people have been killed by the outbreak first reported in the town of Yei earlier this month, The World Health Organisation (WHO) said.
    Last edited by Theresa42; June 10, 2006, 11:59 AM.

  • #2
    Re: Cholera


    Cholera kills five in Zimbabwe capital

    Harare, Zimbabwe, 02/15 - Health authorities in Zimbabwe said Wednesday that cholera had killed five people in a poor suburb of the capital Harare, and left 20 others hospitalised.

    Health Minister David Parirenyatwa said initial indications were the people became infected after drinking dirty water.

    He said health teams had been dispatched to Epworth suburb to bring the outbreak, the latest in a long series, under control.

    "We strongly suspect that the rains could have washed dirt into wells, which are a major source of drinking water here and contaminated the water," he said.

    "We are making efforts to make sure that people here are fully educated on the risks of drinking water that has not been boiled and also for them to take to washing hands before eating anything," said Parirenyatwa.

    Cholera has killed tens of people in Zimbabwe in the last four months, with authorities blaming this on heavy rains which caused poor hygiene.
    Last edited by Theresa42; June 10, 2006, 11:27 AM.


    • #3
      Re: Cholera


      Eight people have died in the last two weeks in a cholera outbreak in southern Cameroon and another 23 have been infected, the country's health ministry said.

      The deaths and illnesses have been reported around the town of Akonolinga, 140 kilometres (about 85 miles) east of the capital Yaounde.

      According to the ministry the disease spread after the body of someone who had died at Douala, the economic capital of Cameroon, was transferred to Akonolinga.

      "The situation is now under control and cases of death and illness are starring to drop," a local doctor who did not want to be identified told AFP.

      "It is an community-type epidemic that has killed eight people because they were in contact with the body but it should be noted that those who went to health centres were all saved," Dr Emmanuel Ngapana of the national epidemological committee said.

      From January 2004 to April 2005 more than 8,500 cases of cholera were registered in Cameroon, and 174 deaths were recorded. — AFP
      Last edited by Theresa42; June 10, 2006, 11:27 AM.


      • #4
        Re: Cholera

        Nigeria & other African countries

        Group Raises Alarm Over Cholera Outbreak

        January 23, 2006
        Posted to the web January 24, 2006

        The Save Water for Afrcan Community Initiative [SWACI] has raised an alarm over the continued outbreak of cholera disease among people living in the local communities in Nigeria as a result of non access to safe water

        The group's President Mr. Michael Ale who disclosed this yesterday in Ibadan lamented that not less than 30 people died recently as a result of outbreak of cholera disease in some parts of Nigeria Beside, he said, 65 people were treated for the infection.

        Ale who addressed journalists after the assessment visit by his group to the affected area said the area lacked drinkable water with just two non- functional bore hole and one latrine

        He also disclosed that Cholera infection can kill withim 24 hours if the right treatment was not administered on the victim and urged the government to provide safe drinkable water and good sanitation for the people in order to reduce death in the rural area

        "Workshop and Campaign on behavioral change is needed to enlighten the people on the need to take care of their Water and Environment. Immediate emergency response measure is needed to curb the spreading of the disease. Borehole drilling, building of latrines at different locations, education on the waste disposal, water treatment means and distribution of point of use gadget. Training and Capacity building on the need to take care of the infrastructure is needed for indigenes of the community to repair the pump whenever it is faulty and operate the distribution measure"

        ".Corporate Social Responsibility must not be the thing of socializing for the sake of fulfilling the obligation, but must be made a sustainable venture. it should not only be an act of providing for the community but involving the community for sustainable venture also.Ministry of Environment must take the issue of sanitation very serious and make sure that a people stop defecating in the bush in this era of civilization."
        .Ale also urged the ministry of water resources to instigate the International Donors to site borehole in the cholera ravaged area.
        <TABLE cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=9 width=180 align=left border=0><TBODY><TR><TD align=right><TABLE cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=1 width="100%" bgColor=#000000 border=0><TBODY><TR><TD><TABLE cellSpacing=3 cellPadding=0 width="100%" bgColor=#ffffff border=0><TBODY><TR><TD class=basic-seventy align=middle>Relevant Links</TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE></TD></TR><TR><TD align=middle><TABLE cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=3 width="100%" bgColor=#ffffff border=0><TBODY><TR><TD class=nav align=middle>West Africa
        Health and Medicine
        Water and Sanitation
        </TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>He explained that the provision of safe water is the key to social and environmental sustainability and also an effort to enable African countries to meet the UN MDG'S target by 2015, which is targeted towards Human behavioral change and Government policy change.

        He said that his group will continue to assist countries that are affected with water related diseases through Assessment of the cause and administration of necessary panacea through partnership with other Donor."

        We have reported cases in Zambia, Kenya and Gambia and other African Countries" Ale said
        Last edited by Theresa42; June 10, 2006, 11:28 AM.


        • #5
          Re: Cholera


          Feb 6, 2006

          An epidemic has killed 60 000 chickens in northern Nigeria, officials said on Monday, while attempting to calm fears that the deadly bird-flu virus had spread to the country.

          Salihu Jibrin, director of veterinary services in Kano state's agriculture ministry, said initial evidence suggests that the devastating outbreak was fowl cholera, a bacterial infection, rather than influenza.

          "We have so far recorded the death of 60 000 chickens in this epidemic and, from preliminary results of laboratory tests conducted on samples of the dead birds, the presence of fowl-cholera bacteria," Jibrin said.

          "Further tests are being conducted at the National Veterinary Research Institute in Vom and Ahmadu Bello University Veterinary Teaching hospital in Zaria for comprehensive laboratory diagnosis," he added.

          The sudden death of so many chickens, coming at a time when the world is nervously monitoring the spread of the H5N1 strain of bird flu, which can prove deadly to humans, has caused concern in northern Nigeria.

          Officials have broadcast television and radio messages to try to calm such fears and place the blame on bird cholera, a disease that causes birds to die from fatigue and dehydration as they lose control of their bowels.

          Shehu Bawa, the head of a team set up to monitor the disease, said that until the test results are back, a virus such as Newcastle disease, which has similar symptoms to cholera, cannot be ruled out. -- Sapa-AFP
          Last edited by Theresa42; June 10, 2006, 11:28 AM.


          • #6
            Re: Cholera

            Map Of Cholera Outbreaks
            Click image for larger version

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            • #7
              Re: Cholera Outbreaks

              What I find interesting is that the Avian Cholera that Nigeria had turned out to be Avian Influenza.

              I believe Laos or Vietnam also misdiagnosed Avian Influenza as Avian Cholera as well.

              Isn't that interesting.

              What is the most interesting of all is that On January 12th 2006 there was an outbreak of Avian Cholera in Arkansas that killed 1,500 Snow Geese.

              I wonder if the United States also misdiagnosed Avian Influenza as Avian Cholera?


              • #8
                Re: Cholera Outbreaks

                Note also the pattern down the west and east costal regions - in line with flyways?


                • #9
                  Re: Cholera Outbreaks

                  Additionally, s. America has recorded instances of H9 infection but in the Russian Officials news report today when talking about the spread of avian flu infection he also included a spread from S. America to N. America. The implication and context of the article was that this was an H5N1 spread - so you could be right.


                  • #10
                    Re: Cholera Outbreaks

                    Looks to me like they are in line.

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                    • #11
                      Cholera -Sudan - 127 dead


                      SUDAN: Cholera toll rises to 127
                      06 Mar 2006 14:26:24 GMT
                      Source: IRIN
                      FACTBOX: Cholera epidemic hits Guinea-Bissau

                      FACTBOX: Cholera epidemic hits Guinea-Bissau

                      FACTBOX: Central African Republic

                      CRISIS PROFILE: Can peace take root in war-weary Burundi?

                      CRISIS PROFILE-What's going on in Sudan's Darfur?


                      NAIROBI, 6 March (IRIN) - The death toll from the cholera outbreak in southern Sudan has reached 127, the United Nations World Health Organization (WHO) reported on Monday.

                      A joint task force, consisting of Sudanese health officials and other organisations, had reported a total of 5,634 cases between 28 January and 3 March, according to an agency statement.

                      The outbreak of cholera was first reported in the town of Yei, southwest of Juba town, in late January. The recent cases were concentrated around the two towns.

                      WHO said various measures were being undertaken to try and control the outbreak, including strengthening the surveillance and reporting system, standardising case management and promoting health education and hygiene with the chlorination of public water supplies.

                      In neighbouring Uganda, the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) said that 34 suspected cases of cholera had been reported in Koboko district, which borders Sudan.

                      Twenty of the cases were Sudanese persons who crossed the border to seek medical assistance, OCHA said in a report issued on Saturday. Another four suspected cases had been reported in nearby Adjumani district but were discharged from health facilities.

                      OCHA said it was concerned about the potential spread of the outbreak along the main road through Gulu district, where many camps for people who have been displaced by war in the region are located.

                      Last edited by Theresa42; June 10, 2006, 11:49 AM.


                      • #12
                        Re: Cholera Outbreaks


                        ZAMBIA: Lusaka battles to control cholera
                        13 Mar 2006 19:21:33 GMT
                        Source: IRIN
                        FACTBOX: Cholera epidemic hits Guinea-Bissau

                        FACTBOX: Cholera epidemic hits Guinea-Bissau


                        LUSAKA, 13 March (IRIN) - Zambia is struggling to combat an outbreak of cholera, a disease associated with poor sanitation, a lack of hygiene and access to potable water, which has claimed 137 lives, mostly in the capital, Lusaka.

                        The absence of a solid waste disposal system and potable water in informal settlements, and the unhygienic street vending of fruit, vegetables and other foodstuffs across the country have been identified as the main reasons for the spread of this highly contagious disease.

                        More than 5,526 cases of cholera have been treated in 26 districts of Zambia since the outbreak began in August 2005. The capital has recorded 116 deaths.

                        Many of Lusaka's 37 informal settlements, each with a population of around 50,000, depend on shallow wells for water and use pit latrines, which are not serviced by the municipality. The raw sewage from the pit latrines, often located near the shallow wells, contaminates the drinking water.

                        Street vending as a means of livelihood is common in the informal settlements and city centre, but garbage is often not disposed of in the designated areas, which has also aggravated the problem.

                        Zambians blame the local government for failing to provide services in the informal settlements in Lusaka, even though some of them have been recognised as legitimate suburbs.

                        "I am aware about the prevalence of cholera because it has killed a number of my relatives, but we have no option, apart from drawing water from the shallow wells," said Grace Chipampe, a resident of Kalikiliki, a "legalised" settlement 10 km east of Lusaka. "We are forced to live in piles of garbage because nobody bothers to clear it, and even when flies sit on our food we merely continue eating our meals."

                        In response to the crisis, Zambian health authorities last week gave street vendors 14 days' notice to move to designated areas, where conditions are more hygienic. The government also announced plans to construct markets in Lusaka and the northern towns of Kitwe and Ndola later in the year.

                        NGOs, like the 'Keep Lusaka Clean' campaign, have underlined the need to implement existing municipal bylaws to maintain hygienic conditions and provide services in recognised settlements.

                        Even the state-run National Road Transport and Safety Agency (NRTSA) has stepped in to criticise the Lusaka City Council's failure to address street vending.

                        Martin Mbangu, NRTSA's deputy managing director, said besides being a health hazard, vending also exposed traders and customers to traffic risks. "Street vending is bad, as it contributes to road traffic congestion and allows garbage heaps to pile up around the town centre."

                        Authorities at Lusaka's City Council said they had intensified efforts to clear garbage in the downtown and residential areas, but added that it lacked resources to adequately address the problem.

                        "We have visited a number of cholera-prone compounds to chlorinate and lime the pit latrines to kill the germs," said Chimuka Mbewe, a spokeswoman for the council, which has a fleet of only 10 vehicles to cover a city with 2.5 million residents. "We have not done very well in solid waste management because of [the lack of] resources."

                        The council's claim has been backed by Local Government Minister Andrew Mulenga, who commented, "Our greatest setback is the irregular support [grants] from the central government."

                        Former municipal officials acknowledged that the lack of resources to provide adequate housing and trading areas had forced municipalities to turn a blind eye when bylaws were flouted.

                        Levy Mkandawire, previously mayor of Lusaka, said the increased demand for shelter in the capital had forced the municipality to recognise 37 informal settlements, although it lacked the funds to provide services. "There has been pressure on the local authority to provide shelter to the ever-increasing population in Lusaka, and we have decided to recognise most of the illegal settlements so that, someday, we shall provide services."

                        The government announced last month that it planned to spend more than US $760,000 to control the spread of cholera and improve sanitary conditions in Zambia. Health Minister Sylvia Masebo told parliament that the government had managed to raise about half that amount, with the assistance of the UN's World Health Organisation.

                        While noting poor infrastructure planning, Masebo also laid the blame for the spread of cholera on the failure of informal settlement residents to maintain personal hygiene. "Unless we show commitment as a nation to fighting the disease, the impact would be much greater than the epidemic of the year 2000, in which over 11,000 were affected," she said.

                        'Make Zambia Clean and Healthy', a campaign that aims to institutionalise hygiene and improve cleanliness in public places and individual homes, has been intensified, Masebo added.

                        The Zambia Red Cross Society has also stepped up their door-to-door community health education, mainly in Lusaka's Kanyama settlement, where most of the cholera cases have occurred.
                        Last edited by Theresa42; June 10, 2006, 11:30 AM.


                        • #13
                          Re: Cholera Outbreaks


                          TANZANIA: Cholera outbreak leaves 79 in hospital, new cases continue to be reported
                          13 Mar 2006 10:09:16 GMT
                          Source: IRIN
                          FACTBOX: Cholera epidemic hits Guinea-Bissau

                          FACTBOX: Cholera epidemic hits Guinea-Bissau


                          DAR ES SALAAM, 13 March (IRIN) - New cases of cholera continue to be reported in Tanzania's commercial capital, Dar es Salaam, where until Friday 79 patients were admitted to various health centres in the city, a spokesman said on Monday.

                          "We are getting new cases almost everyday despite the ongoing mass education campaigns on how to contain the disease," Gaston Makwembe, an information officer for the Dar es Salaam City Council, said.

                          He blamed the shortage of water in the city for the disease's persistence, which has seen periodic outbreaks there and in other parts of the country because of public consumption of unsafe drinking water from wells and other sources.

                          "In our campaigns we insist that people should boil water for drinking from whatever source they get it," he said.

                          He said 582 cholera patients were reported at various health centres in the city since 2 December 2005, six of whom died.

                          Cholera, an acute diarrhoeal disease, is caused by infection of the intestine with the bacterium "vibrio cholerae". The infection is often characterised by profuse watery diarrhoea and vomiting.

                          Patients suffer from rapid loss of body fluids leading to dehydration and shock. Without treatment, usually with fluid infusion, death can occur within hours.
                          Last edited by Theresa42; June 10, 2006, 11:30 AM.


                          • #14
                            Re: Cholera Outbreaks


                            15 New Cases Of Cholera Recorded

                            Luanda, 03/13 - Fifteen new cases of cholera have been recorded in Luanda in the last 24 hours, 11 of which in the high density district of Sambizanga, totalling 231 since the disease broke out in February this year.

                            According to the provincial director of Health, Vita Vemba, a special attention must be paid to the district of Sambizanga, particularly in the Lixeira areas, where the number of cases tends to rise.

                            Vita Vemba said as well that the cleaning firm (ELISAL) and water supplying (EPAL) are endeavouring to improve the conditions of the environment in those localities.

                            He explained that the supply of drinking water through tanks has been reinforced, in addition to distribution of hypochlorite to disinfect the water and avoid consumption of water from contaminated wells.

                            He also mentioned the works of clearing of the drains, awareness campaigns and education of citizens through the media, church and direct contact with the communities.

                            Vita Vemba appealed to the population to abide by the prevention measures that include disinfection or boiling of water to arrest the spread of the diseases.
                            Last edited by Theresa42; June 10, 2006, 11:30 AM.


                            • #15
                              Re: Cholera Outbreaks


                              8 cholera cases in City
                              DH News Service Bangalore:
                              Eight people have been tested positive for cholera in Bangalore. The results of the stool samples sent to the Government Public Health Institute after a breakout of Gastro Enteritis (GE) in the City was conveyed to the respective hospitals on Saturday.

                              Eight people have been tested positive for cholera in Bangalore. The results of the stool samples sent to the Government Public Health Institute after a breakout of Gastro Enteritis (GE) in the City was conveyed to the respective hospitals on Saturday. However, BMP Chief Health Officer Dr Thandava Murthy denied there are cases of cholera.

                              The three cases in the Epidemic Disease Hospital are two adults and one child from Seshadripuram, Srirampuram and Malleswaram. The five cases in the Kempegowda Institute of Medical Sciences include four children and one adult from Chamarajpet, Parvathipuram (near VV Puram) and surrounding areas.

                              Dr Murthy maintains there are only 10 cases of gastro reported from Siddarthanagar near Goodshed Road.

                              Unconfirmed reports said that 19-year-old Vijay Kumar from Vinayaknagar in the same Chickpet area died at home due to cholera and the entire family had left to North Karnataka, immediately after.

                              While BMP officials worked until 4 pm, armed with a battery of doctors and three ambulances, BWSSB personnel who were on leave on account of second Saturday, clarified there was no contamination in water supply in any of the areas in the City.

                              According to, a health portal, 1,678 contagious water-borne diseases have been reported in the City during the last one week.
                              In 2005, 13 cases of cholera were reported on June 24, 8 cases on August 23 and 3 cases on October 27 in the BMP limits.

                              Gastro Enteritis

                              Epidemic Hospital -39

                              KIMS - 13 (9 children, 4 adults); Victoria Hospital -2.

                              According to Dr Shanth Kumar of Epidemic Hospital, a person may get cholera by drinking water or eating food contaminated with the cholera bacterium. In an epidemic, the source of the contamination is usually the faeces of an infected person.

                              The disease can spread rapidly in areas with inadequate treatment of sewage and drinking water.

                              Meanwhile, Health Minister R Ashok too denied that there were any case of cholera cases reported in the City.

                              Last edited by Theresa42; June 10, 2006, 11:30 AM.