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  • #31
    Re: Cholera Outbreaks - Global

    More cholera deaths in Angola
    24/11/2006 21:05 - (SA)
    Luanda - A cholera epidemic in Angola, one of Africa's worst, has claimed 2 537 lives since February, but is gradually abating, said a health official on Friday.
    "We are still registering at least four to five new cases every day in Luanda," the southern African nation's seaside capital, said provincial director of public health Vita Vemba.
    "There have been no fatalities among the new cases that are coming up," said Vemba, adding that 61 143 people had been affected so far.
    The number of new infections in Luanda had fallen during the past month after steps were taken to clean up shantytowns and provide the residents with drinking water, said Vemba.
    The epidemic has spread across sprawling the country, whose infrastructure has been ravaged by a 27-year civil war and where drinking water and proper sanitation are luxuries. The deadly but easily treatable water-borne disease broke out in Luanda's northern slum of Boa Vista.
    http://www.news24.com/News24/Africa/...035543,00.html

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    • #32
      Re: Cholera Outbreaks - Global

      Cholera crisis on Somali border As if the poor Somalis had not got enough problems with the invasion/occupation of their country.

      Comment


      • #33
        Re: Cholera Outbreaks - Global

        Scroll at bottom of screen:

        Around 21 people was killed AND 60 OTHER people were treated in the HOSPITAL AS A RESULT OF being affected by the PLAGUE ATTACK of CHOLERA in the Philippines SOUTH

        http://www.metrotvnews.com/

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        • #34
          Re: Cholera Outbreaks - Global

          [Notice to readers: (*) omitted texts about current political turmoil in the region. IOH. For complete article, please follow the link below.]

          Cholera breaks out among Pakistan displaced--ICRC

          05 Sep 2008 15:52:15 GMT - Source: Reuters - By Stephanie Nebehay

          GENEVA, Sept 5 (Reuters) -

          Cholera has broken out among some of up to 300,000 people in northwestern Pakistan who have fled fighting (...)(*), the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) said on Friday.

          (...)

          The neutral humanitarian agency's top priority is providing clean water and sanitation to tens of thousands who fled Bajaur for nearby Lower Dir district since the conflict intensified four weeks ago.

          "Cholera has started in certain areas...It is a major concern," Pascal Cuttat, head of ICRC's delegation in Pakistan, told a news briefing.

          "The most immediate need remains access to clean water and sanitation. No food, health care or shelter is going to be of any good if people get water-borne diseases," he said.

          Cholera, transmitted mainly through contaminated water and food, was already endemic in the area, he said. It begins with acute watery diarrhoea that in severe cases can cause death by dehydration and kidney failure within hours.

          The ICRC had no figures for the number of cases of cholera, which Cuttat said had been confirmed in local laboratories by Pakistani doctors.

          The World Health Organisation said it had no immediate information on any cholera outbreaks in Pakistan.

          About 80 percent of an estimated 50,000 displaced in hot and overcrowded makeshift camps or schools in Lower Dir, are women and children, according to Cuttat.

          Most men stayed in the villages to guard their property and harvest crops.

          Another 20,000 people have fled more recent fighting (...).

          "Tens of thousands of affected people are on the move in one way or another," Cuttat said, stressing that numbers fluctuated.

          "It is a very volatile situation. It is not going away."

          The ICRC deploys 400 local aid workers and 50 expatriates throughout Pakistan, (...).

          (...).

          (Editing by Keith Weir)
          -
          http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/L550045.htm
          ------

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          • #35
            Re: Cholera Outbreaks - Global

            Cholera kills one, infects six in Iraq - official

            07 Sep 2008 19:30:30 GMT - Source: Reuters

            BAGHDAD, Sept 7 (Reuters) -

            Seven cases of cholera have been diagnosed in Iraq in the past two days, including one fatality, a senior health official said on Sunday.

            Scarcity of water during Iraq's scorching summer forces more people to drink water from unsafe sources, the official said.

            More than 4,000 cases of cholera, which can kill victims with sudden severe diarrhoea, were diagnosed in Iraq last year.

            Iraq's General Director of Public Health Ihsan Jaafar said as long as there was scarcity of water, cholera would remain a problem.

            A boy died in southern Maysan province, five of the infected are from the Abu Ghraib district of western Baghdad and one from Rusafa in the east of the city.

            Last year's outbreak, in which at least 24 died, was mostly in the northern cities of Kirkuk and Sulaimaniya.

            Cholera is characterised in its most severe form by a sudden onset of acute watery diarrhoea that can cause death by severe dehydration and kidney failure within hours.

            It is mainly transmitted through contaminated water and food. Water and sewage treatment is a perennial challenge in Iraq, where an overhaul of decrepit public works has been hindered by years of war and neglect.

            Jaafar said the Health Ministry was trying to control cholera's spread by early diagnosis of infection, distributing water sterilisation tablets and through a public awareness campaign.

            (Reporting by Aseel Kami: Editing by Janet Lawrence)
            -
            http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/L7554653.htm
            --------

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            • #36
              Re: Cholera Outbreaks - Global

              Cholera prompts state of emergency in Iraq province

              08 Sep 2008 14:12:32 GMT - Source: Reuters - (Adds WHO comment, Baghdad official on death toll)

              HILLA, Iraq, Sept 8 (Reuters) -

              Officials in Iraq's Babil province declared a state of emergency on Monday after an outbreak of cholera in the area.

              Cholera has killed eight people and infected 20 others in the past three days in Babil, south of Baghdad, officials said at a news conference. Ihsan Jaafar, general director of public health at the Health Ministry in Baghdad, said only two fatalities had been confirmed.

              Some 500 other people in the province were suspected to have contracted the disease, which can sometimes kill victims with sudden severe diarrhoea, the local officials said.

              A representative for the World Health Organisation (WHO) in Iraq said the body was still gathering information and would announce its findings soon.

              Ambulances patrolled Babil markets warning people through loudspeakers to be careful about where they bought their food and drink and how it was prepared, a Reuters witness said. It was unclear what other measures the state of emergency entailed.

              Scarcity of water during Iraq's scorching summer forces many to drink water from unsafe sources.

              More than 4,000 cases of cholera were confirmed in Iraq last year, killing at least 24.

              The disease then jumped into neighbouring Iran, the WHO said at the time.

              Babil borders Baghdad, where Jaafar on Sunday said six people had been diagnosed with cholera.

              The Babil victims brought total infections in Iraq in the past week to 27, including three fatalities, he said.

              The dead include a boy who died of the disease in southern Maysan province, where the government said on Monday it had dispatched a delegation from the Environment Ministry to combat its spread.

              Cholera is characterised in its most severe form by a sudden onset of acute watery diarrhoea that can sometimes cause death by severe dehydration and kidney failure within hours. It is mainly transmitted through contaminated water and food.

              Water and sewage are a perennial challenge in Iraq, where war and neglect have hindered the overhaul of public works.

              Iraq is trying to control cholera by early diagnosis, distributing sterilisation tablets and an awareness campaign.
              (Reporting by Aws Qusay and Aseel Kami; Writing by Mohammed Abbas; Editing by Catherine Evans)
              -
              http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/L878812.htm
              -------

              Comment


              • #37
                Re: Cholera Outbreaks - Global

                IRAQ: Cholera cases reach 172, health ministry says [IRIN]
                IRAQ: Cholera cases reach 172, health ministry says

                BAGHDAD, 21 September 2008 (IRIN) -

                A cholera outbreak is continuing to spread in central and southern Iraq with 65 new cases registered over the past week, bringing the total number of confirmed cases to 172, a health ministry spokesman said on 20 September.


                "We have registered so far 172 confirmed cases of cholera in eight provinces: Babil 104 cases, Baghdad 42 cases, Karbala 17 cases, Basra three cases, Najaf two cases, Anbar two cases, Diyala one case and Maysan one case," said Ihsan Jaafar, director-general of the public health directorate and spokesman for the ministry's cholera control unit.

                Dozens of suspected cases are being tested, Jaafar added.

                "We are still fighting the disease in the affected areas. We have no problem with the [availability of] medicines and the movement of our medical teams but we can't say that we will put an end to this disease as it is endemic in Iraq and the reasons behind it are still around," he told IRIN.

                Despite 40 cases having been diagnosed in Babil Province last week, Jaafar said that ongoing awareness campaigns have helped limit watery diarrhoea cases, often associated with cholera.

                He anticipated that new cholera cases would continue to occur in the country until the end of October as the disease's peak is in August, September and October.

                According to Richard Finkelstein, the author of the Cholera, Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139, and Other Pathogenic Vibrios section in the Medical Microbiology textbook, the disease occurs primarily during summer, possibly reflecting the increased presence of the organism in the marine environment during those months, as well as the enhanced opportunity for it to multiply in unrefrigerated foods.

                Since the outbreak began in late August, five fatalities have been registered so far: a 10-year-old girl and a 61-year-old man in Babil province; a three-year-old boy in Maysan; and an adult and child in Baghdad.

                Babil and Maysan are about 100km and 350km south of Baghdad respectively.

                The Iraqi Health Ministry and the World Health Organization have blamed the country's rundown water and sanitation infrastructure for the cholera outbreak.

                Cholera is a gastro-intestinal disease typically spread by contaminated water. It can cause severe diarrhoea, which in extreme cases can lead to fatal dehydration. It can be prevented by treating drinking water with chlorine and by improving hygiene conditions.
                --
                <cite cite="http://www.irinnews.org/report.aspx?ReportId=80505">IRIN Middle East | Middle East | Iraq | IRAQ: Cholera cases reach 172, health ministry says | Health & Nutrition | News Item</cite>

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                • #38
                  Re: Cholera Outbreaks - Global

                  Source: http://www.zimonline.co.za/Article.aspx?ArticleId=3715

                  Doctors warn of looming health disaster in Zim cities
                  by Wayne Mafaro Friday 26 September 2008

                  HARARE – A Zimbabwe doctors’ organisation has warned of a looming health disaster in the country’s cities and said a new power-sharing government to be formed by the country’s rival political leaders should act urgently to provide clean water in urban areas.

                  The Zimbabwe Association of Doctors for Human Rights (ZADHR) said in statement this week that a government body charged with providing water in urban areas had failed to do so forcing many resident to rely on unclean water.

                  “This coupled with a breakdown in the sanitation system (burst sewage pipes and lack of refuse collection and proper disposal) is threatening the health of millions of Zimbabweans,” the ZADHR said in a statement this week.

                  The doctors group spoke as the Ministry of Health confirmed the death of three people this week because of cholera in Harare’s dormitory city of Chitungwiza.

                  The deaths bring to 16 the number of people who have succumbed to Cholera since an outbreak of the water borne disease in Chitungiwza last month.


                  The ZADHR said in addition to the outbreak of cholera in Chitungwiza, public health facilities in the capital Harare and in the second largest city of Bulawayo were also recording numerous cases of diarrhea on a daily basis. It was most likely that the number of deaths due to cholera in Chitungwiza may be much higher than what had been, the group said.

                  “The new government must address this crisis as a matter of urgency. It is a matter which cannot wait for the resolution of differences and sticking issues,” the ZADHR said referring to a deadlock over distribution of Cabinet posts that has stalled formation of the new power-sharing government.

                  President Robert Mugabe, opposition leaders Morgan Tsvangirai and Arthur Mutambara signed an agreement to form a power-sharing government to tackle Zimbabwe’s long running political and economic crisis.

                  But the three leaders have so far failed to appoint a new Cabinet to run the country because they cannot agree on how to share key posts in the new government.

                  Zimbabwe’s recession marked by the world’s highest inflation of more than 11 million percent, has hastened the deterioration of key infrastructure needed for economic activity and public health such as adequate power and water supplies.

                  The country public health sector, once lauded as one of the best in Africa, has been one of the hardest hit by the economic crisis with the government short of cash to import essential medicines and equipment, while the country has suffered the worst brain drain of doctors, nurses and other professionals seeking better opportunities abroad.
                  – ZimOnline

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                  • #39
                    Re: Cholera Outbreaks - Global

                    Source: http://www.fingaz.co.zw/story.aspx?stid=814

                    (Zimbabwe) Disaster looms
                    Nelson Chenga & Charles Rukuni, Staff Reporters

                    Doctors warn water crisis now at tipping point

                    A HEALTH disaster of unimaginable proportions looms in Harare after the water situation deteriorated even further this week, sparking fresh health concerns as an outbreak of cholera in Chitungwiza claimed two more lives this week bringing to 13 the total number of deaths so far.

                    The water crisis in Harare and in Chitungwiza, approximately 30 kilometres south of the capital, has reached critical levels forcing doctors and the cities' residents associations to exert pressure on government to put its house in order and avoid continued loss of lives.
                    Faced with severe shortages of foreign currency required to import water purification chemicals and spares to repair the ageing water infrastructure, the government has all but admitted it does not have the capacity to deal with the problem.
                    The confusion over Cabinet appointments has not helped the situation.

                    The Zimbabwe Association of Doctors for Human Rights (ZADHR) this week said a serious health crisis looms in urban areas owing to the severe shortage of running water.
                    Failure by the state-run Zimbabwe National Water Authority (ZINWA) to treat and pump adequate supplies of water has left most urban homes dry and forced residents to rely on unsafe sources of water.
                    This, coupled with a breakdown in the sanitation system (burst sewage pipes and lack of refuse collection and proper disposal) is threatening the health of millions of Zimbabweans at a time when the health delivery system is least prepared to deal with any major outbreak of diseases due to the brain drain and the shortage of drugs.

                    Water and sanitation experts, including the few engineers left at ZINWA, have warned of the impending health and environmental crisis but their appeals have fallen on deaf ears.
                    ZINWA has since admitted it has not been treating the more than 300 megalitres of waste produced in the capital, which is simply being discharged into Harare's main source of raw water, Lake Chivero.
                    The untreated waste water has contaminated more than half of Lake Chivero. As a result the water treatment bill has spiked to such levels that ZINWA is now unable to procure the enormous amount of chemicals needed to treat the murky Chivero water for safe human consumption.
                    Water experts have also said the treatment of Harare water has become complicated because the waste water discharges were highly contaminated with industrial toxins, which need complex methods to remove, thus exposing consumers to health complications other than cholera.

                    "The new government must address this crisis as a matter of urgency. It is a matter, which cannot wait for resolution of differences or 'sticking points'. Public service provision has been inadequate for several years and requires urgent and comprehensive remedial action," said ZADHR.
                    The association told The Financial Gazette this week that access to safe drinking water and to adequate sanitation are basic human rights and not privileges.
                    "They (access to sanitation and water) are determinants of health, which if not made available can result in outbreaks of diarrhoea, cholera and dysentery that are life threatening.

                    "Lives have already been lost to cholera in Chitungwiza and health centres in Harare and Bulawayo are burdened by numerous cases of diarrhoea on a daily basis. It is highly likely that the number of deaths in Chitungwiza, currently reported at 13 individuals, is much higher, and that this is but the tip of an iceberg of much more morbidity. This has not been communicated to the public," said the association.
                    Outbreaks of cholera at any time are symptomatic of serious structural problems within the system of public works. They are more common when rains have resulted in flooding or overload of drainage systems.
                    An outbreak in the middle of the dry season is particularly disturbing.
                    This week Health Minister David Parirenyatwa urged urbanites to be on high alert in the wake of the outbreak of cholera in Chitungwiza.
                    "I would like to urge those who might be experiencing watery diarrhoea, vomiting and rapid severe dehydration to quickly report to any clinic," the daily Herald quoted the Minister as saying.
                    But the association of doctors yesterday said it was not good enough for the Health Ministry to respond to disease outbreak only after it has occurred.
                    "It is paramount that it (Ministry of Health) works in conjunction with other ministries concerned, such as that responsible for water resources, and ZINWA, to ensure that disease is prevented and that Zimbabwean's right to the highest attainable state of physical and mental well being is respected," it said.
                    Meanwhile, water problems have once again come to the fore in Bulawayo following reports that staff from ZINWA who are supposed to maintain boreholes at the Nyamandlovu aquifer, one of the city's lifelines, have abandoned the site.
                    The council only has 20 months of water supply left and has been banking on rehabilitating boreholes at Nyamandlovu.
                    The council had asked ZINWA to allow it to lease an agreed number of boreholes, which the council would maintain but ZINWA has refused to commit itself.
                    The council says it has the spare parts and the staff to maintain the boreholes as well as well-wishers who are prepared to fund the operations.
                    ZINWA, which was allowed technically to take over water supplies in the city but never did so, is reported to have lost a lot of its staff. Its maintenance team at Nyamandlovu was reported to have left the site.
                    The parastatal has been facing persistent cash shortages with staff going for months without pay.

                    The mayor Clr Thaba Moyo was concerned about the latest development because the council could not rehabilitate the boreholes without consulting ZINWA because it owned the boreholes.
                    Bulawayo has been facing perennial water problems because its supply dams are now too small for the city of more than one million people. No new dam has been built for the city over the past 30 years.
                    The city was looking forward to the Zambezi Water Project but it has also been bogged down by bureaucracy and lack of funds.

                    Some city residents have been querying how the project will proceed now that its chairman, Dumiso Dabengwa, is out of mainline politics.
                    Dabengwa left ZANU-PF to join Mavambo Project before the March elections and has since abandoned the project.

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                    • #40
                      Re: Cholera Outbreaks - Global

                      AFGHANISTAN: El-Tor cholera leaves 17 dead [IRIN]
                      AFGHANISTAN: El-Tor cholera leaves 17 dead

                      KABUL, 7 October 2008 (IRIN) -

                      An outbreak of El Tor cholera in northern, eastern and southeastern Afghanistan has killed at least 17 people - mostly women and children - in the past few weeks, the Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) said on 6 October.


                      Over 1,100 people with diarrhoea and vomiting caused by the outbreak have received treatment at medical facilities in 13 of the country's 34 provinces.

                      The worst affected provinces are Laghman, Nooristan, and Nangarhar (in the east); Samangan and Faryab (north); and Nimruz (west), the MoPH said.

                      "It's not a classic cholera which quickly turns into an epidemic," Abdullah Fahim, a spokesman for the MoPH, told IRIN.

                      El Tor (a strain of the bacterium vibrio cholerae) is less fatal, and controllable, Fahim said.Health workers said the use of contaminated water and poor sanitation had prompted the outbreak.

                      Less than 24 percent of Afghanistan's estimated 26.6 million people have access to improved drinking water and only 12 percent have access to improved sanitation, according to the UN Children's Fund (UNICEF).

                      A severe drought affecting large swaths of the country has made life very difficult for many communities, forcing people to use unsafe water for drinking, washing and cooking.

                      Outbreak under control in nine provinces
                      The MoPH said teams of health workers with medication have been sent to the affected provinces to help local authorities control the spread of the bacteria.

                      "The disease has been controlled in nine provinces and similar efforts are currently under way in four others," Fahim said.

                      Water chlorination in affected areas is a top priority, as is the boosting of public awareness about personal sanitation and communal hygiene.

                      "We have also dispatched sachets of oral rehydration salts and other medicines to provide quick oral rehydration therapy to those in need," Fahim said.

                      Whilst not as life-threatening as other cholera strains, the El Tor bacterium remains for longer in the body and is capable of host-to-host transmission, according to health experts.

                      ad/at/cb
                      Theme(s): (IRIN) Health & Nutrition
                      [ENDS]
                      --
                      <cite cite="http://www.irinnews.org/report.aspx?ReportId=80777">IRIN Asia | Asia | Afghanistan | AFGHANISTAN: El-Tor cholera leaves 17 dead | Health & Nutrition | News Item</cite>

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                      • #41
                        Re: Cholera Outbreaks - Global

                        2 articles about an outbreak of cholera. As the situation at the border area between China and Vietnam is worsening, an outbreak could be possible there also.

                        Cholera outbreaks kill 49 in Mozambique, Zimbabwe anthother article from the 3th of November >>Please read on - 阅读更多 >>

                        Cholera outbreak claims nine lives in Harare



                        HARARE, Nov. 4 (Xinhua) -- Three more people have died of cholera, bringing to nine the number of fatalities following an outbreak in the suburb of Zimbabwe's capital city of Harare last week, the state media New Ziana reported on Tuesday.

                        Speaking after visiting hospitals where cholera patients are hospitalised on Monday, the Minister of Health and Child Welfare David Parirenyatwa said the government is deeply concerned by the outbreak.

                        "Nine people have died at the Beatrice Road Infectious Diseases Hospital since the first reports of the outbreak. This is the worst ever cholera outbreak in Harare and we are working with other partners to put up strategies to fight the disease," he said.

                        The government has increased awareness campaigns and urged the media to assist in the battle against the disease.

                        The Civil Protection Unit (CPU) has taken over the task of providing clean water to Harare's Budiriro and Glen View suburbs as part of efforts to contain the cholera outbreak.

                        Although the outbreak has not been declared a national disaster, the decision to bring in the CPU was made at a meeting convened by the Ministry of Local Government, Public Works and Urban Development and attended by representatives from the District Development Fund and Zinwa at the weekend.

                        Until now, Harare City Council, with the assistance of the United Nations Children's Fund and the World Health Organisation, has been providing clean water to the suburb using bowsers.

                        Parirenyatwa said his ministry has increased educational campaigns in Budiriro to educate residents on the symptoms of cholera and dangers of not seeking immediate medical help for infected people.
                        Chen Qi - The µ world of micro-organisms

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                        • #42
                          Re: Cholera Outbreaks - Global

                          Girl Died from Cholera Outbreak in Hainan Province << read on in english

                          An eight-year-old girl died of complications due to a Cholera outbreak in Hainan Province in late October 2008. The have been a confirmed 30 cases and 297 others which are suspected to be Cholera infections in Danzhou City.

                          The disease is caused by bacteria known as Vibrio cholerae and is caused by ingesting or drinking water that is contaminated with the bacteria.

                          According to the Hainan Provincial Health Department, until Oct. 30, 2008, Danzhou City has reported 30 cases of diarrhea. Of which, 26 cases were confirmed by laboratory testing, four cases are under clinical diagnosis, 25 cured, and five have remained hospitalized. There are also a total of 297 other suspected cases of diarrhea reported and 72 hospitalized in Danzhou.

                          海南暴发霍乱 确诊30例 8岁童亡 << read on in chinese

                          大纪元10月31日讯】海南省儋州、临高等市县暴发霍乱疫情,目前已确诊30例病例,疑似病例超过300例 ,1名8岁女童引起并发症死亡。

                          据海南省卫生厅介绍,截止10月30日16时,儋州全市累计诊断霍乱病例30例(其中实验室诊断26例,临 床疑似4例),治愈25例,现住院5例。全市共报告其他感染性腹泻病人297例,现住院72例 。
                          Chen Qi - The µ world of micro-organisms

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                          • #43
                            Re: Cholera Outbreaks - Global

                            100 cholera cases in DR Congo

                            Afp, Nairobi


                            At least 100 cases of cholera have been reported in the Democratic republic of Congo's troubled eastern region, Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF - Doctors Without Borders) said yesterday.

                            "There have been 69 cases of cholera in the four displaced persons camps around Goma over the past week, and 20 in Kitchanga. In Buturande, near Rutshuru, there are five to 10 new cases per day," the medical charity said in a statement.

                            The eastern region has been the scene of fighting between government troops and rebel forces that has recently displaced tens of thousands of people.

                            "Northwest of Goma, in Kitchanga, MSF has managed to increase the water supply in the Mungote displaced persons camp from two litres to at least 10 litres per person per day. Teams will try to achieve similar increases in two other camps in the area," the statement said.

                            Cholera is caused by intestinal bacteria that causes serious diarrhoea and vomiting, leading to dehydration. It has a short incubation period and can prove fatal, but can be cured if diagnosed promptly.

                            On Monday, aid reached the eastern DRC town of Rutshuru for the first time since the UN last week said that looting and violence targeting civilians had thrown tens of thousands of civilians on the roads.

                            A ceasefire declared last week by renegade general Laurent Nkunda's movement and intensive diplomatic activity in the region has allowed for urgent relief action in a bid to avert a looming humanitarian catastrophe.http://www.thedailystar.net/story.php?nid=61896
                            CSI:WORLD http://swineflumagazine.blogspot.com/

                            treyfish2004@yahoo.com

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                            • #44
                              Mugabe's genocide: The images of despair that reveal the full horror of Zimbabwe

                              A nineteenth century disease ravaged a whole country in the twenty first century

                              His body ravaged by cholera, two-year-old Amos barely opens his eyes as a nurse in protective white plastic boots and gloves checks his temperature.

                              Tenderly, his mother Rachel strokes her son's head. But in her heart she must know that his chances are slender.

                              Her little boy is staring death in the face - in all likelihood, he will not survive to see Christmas.
                              Last Tuesday, Rachel walked five miles carrying Amos on her back to an emergency cholera clinic near Zimbabwe's capital, Harare.

                              Please read on - 阅读更多 >>
                              Chen Qi - The µ world of micro-organisms

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