S. Songül Yalçın, Defne Engür-Karasimav, Dursun Alehan, Kadriye Yurdakök, Süheyla Özkutlu, Turgay Coşkun
Zinc supplementation and TNF-α levels in vaccinated cardiac patients
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 25, Issue 2, April 2011, Pages 85–90

To investigate whether zinc supplementation could affect serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels in congenital and acquired cardiac patients attending for an influenza vaccine.

9–18 years old, voluntary children with cardiac disease were weighed, measured height and blood samples for hemoglobin level, zinc level, IgA and IgG titers of influenza A and B serotypes and TNF-α levels were obtained. The children were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: ZV group received both zinc supplementation and influenza vaccine; V group received influenza vaccine. Serum TNF-α levels were measured at 28 days after the immunization.

Mean (±SD) serum zinc level was 100 (±20) μg/dL. Cases with congenital heart disease had lower serum zinc levels than acquired ones (93 ± 17 μg/dL, 116 ± 18 μg/dL; respectively, p < 0.001). Median titers of serum TNF-α decreased after vaccination (78.9 pg/mL, 74.8 pg/mL; p < 0.05) but this significant change occurred only in ZV group (77.1 pg/mL, 73.4 pg/mL; p = 0.001). Vaccine associated adverse events were similar in ZV and V groups except malaise (0% in ZV and 23.8% in V group; p < 0.05). Adverse events were similar in patients with congenital and acquired heart diseases. During the previous influenza season, 77.3% had more than two episodes of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI), however, after vaccination only 13.6% had more than two episode of URTI.

Zinc supplementation has a beneficial effect on malaise, one of the influenza vaccine associated adverse events, and decrease serum TNF-α levels.

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