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Nigeria: 2019/2020 Yellow Fever

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  • #16

    Again suspected yellow fever outbreak kills 10 in Bauchi
    By Hassan Ibrahim, Bauchi | Published Date Nov 3, 2019 15:46 PM

    Another suspected yellow fever outbreak has killed 10 people in different communities of Ningi local government area of Bauchi state Two health workers at the Tipchi Primary Healthcare Centre, are currently struck down with the suspected disease in the new outbreak.

    The affected communities include Tipchi, Deru, Sabon Gari, Tudun Wada and Barawo, all in Burra District, Ningi LGA of the state.

    One of the affected health worker at the Tipchi Primary Health Care Centre, who don’t want be named, said “As I am talking to you I am also affected by the the disease that resisted all manners of medication in the hospital. I am currently at home with high fever. I couldn’t even go to work. My female colleagues is also down with this high fever for the past one week but is now recuperating.”

    He revealed that the outbreak started almost four weeks ago and the center had reported the issues to the local government primary health care department, but there was no positive response yet...


    • #17

      Yellow fever kills 29 in Bauchi
      Published November 7, 2019

      Chairman, Bauchi State Primary Healthcare Development Agency, Dr. Rilwanu Mohammed, said on Thursday that 29 people had died from an outbreak of yellow fever in the state.

      Mohammed disclosed this while briefing newsmen on the outbreak of yellow fever in the state.

      “We discovered 224 suspected cases, and 29 were confirmed dead, with 24 in Alkaleri local government, two in Bauchi local government, one in Darazo council area and two in Ningi local government,” he said.

      Mohammed explained that the virus was first detected in Alkaleri council area in September, adding that efforts had since been on to avoid further spread...


      • #18

        3 rapid-response teams deployed as yellow fever outbreak surges
        By Judd-Leonard Okafor | Published Date Nov 8, 2019 21:10 PM TwitterFacebookWhatsAppTelegram Vaccination healthcare concept.

        Three rapid-response teams have been deployed to Katsina, Bauchi and Benue this week to support response to outbreak of Yellow fever.
        There’s been an upsurge of cases of yellow fever between August 1 and November 5 this year.

        Some 511 cases suspected to be yellow fever have come from the three states—309 from Katsina, 162 from Bauchi, and 40 from Benue...


        • #19

          Yellow fever claims over 100 in Nigeria
          from EMEKA OKONKWO in Abuja, Nigeria

          ABUJA, (CAJ News) – NIGERIA is battling an outbreak of the yellow fever virus that has killed more than 100 people since August.

          The northwestern Bauchi State is the most affected with 77 deaths from some 600 cases.

          At least 24 people have died from 183 confirmed cases in the northern Bauchi.

          Benue, also in the north has reported 150 cases but no deaths have been reported.

          Nigeria has activated a multi-agency yellow fever Emergency Operations Centre (EOC) in response to the increasing cases...


          • #20

            Week 46: 11 - 17 November 2019
            Data as reported by: 17:00; 17 November 2019

            Nigeria Yellow fever

            3 620 Cases
            150 Deaths
            4.1% CFR


            The outbreak of yellow fever which started in Nigeria in September
            2017 is ongoing. Since 1 August 2019, Nigeria has been experiencing
            an upsurge of yellow fever cases reported mainly from six states
            across the two northern zones namely: Bauchi, Benue, Borno,
            Gombe, Kano and Katsina states. Concurrently, suspected cases
            continue to be reported across all the 36 states and the Federal
            Capital Territory (FCT).

            In October 2019, between weeks 40 and 44, a total of 839 suspected
            cases were reported from all the 36 states and the FCT including 35
            presumptive positive samples (IgM positive). Of these, 72 cases were
            confirmed positive for yellow fever by RT-PCR at two laboratories
            including the WHO reference laboratory, Institut Pasteur Dakar (IPD),
            (41 cases) and the NCDC National Reference Laboratory (NRL) in
            Abuja (31 cases). During this month, two new states (Plateau and
            Taraba) recorded confirmed cases of yellow fever.

            From 1 January to 31 October 2019 (epidemiological week 44), a
            total of 3 620 suspected yellow fever cases have been reported in
            588 LGAs from 36 states and the FCT. Among the 135-presumptive
            positive and 42 inconclusive samples, 80 were confirmed positive
            at the IP Dakar. Additionally, 33 samples were confirmed at the NRL
            and 31 at Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), this brings the
            total to 144 confirmed cases. These cases are distributed across 18
            states: Katsina (44), Bauchi (33), Edo (19), Ebonyi (15), Benue (6),
            Gombe (6), Ondo (6), Borno (4), Kebbi (2), Cross River (1), Anambra
            (1), Imo (1), Kano (1), Sokoto (1), Taraba (1), Oyo (1), Osun (1) and
            Plateau (1). One hundred and fifty deaths have been reported among
            all yellow fever cases and 11 deaths among confirmed cases from
            Bauchi (7) and Ebonyi (4). This resulted in a case fatality ratio of
            4.1% among suspected cases and 7.6% among confirmed cases.
            Between weeks 1 and 35 of 2019, the weekly case incidence has
            fluctuated between 50 to 100 cases. A sharp increase in the number
            of cases was observed from week 35 (week ending 1 September
            2019) until week 38 (week ending 22 September 2019) when
            the outbreak peaked with over 190 cases reported. Since then, a
            stepwise decrease in the trend has been observed with fewer than 10
            cases reported in week 43 (week ending 27 October 2019).


            The Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) activated
            a national Emergency Operations Centre (EOC) on the 5
            November 2019 to ensure a well-coordinated response and
            quick control of the outbreak.

            Three rapid response teams (RRT) were deployed for
            immediate investigation of confirmed cases and to support
            response activities in the affected states including Katsina,
            Bauchi and Benue.

            Active surveillance has been enhanced across the country,
            including active case search and case investigation of alerts.
            Finalization of the new testing algorithm is underway, with
            ongoing operationalization of the new laboratories added
            to the national laboratory network in Abuja, Edo and Enugu.
            Furthermore, molecular testing for in-country confirmation
            of yellow fever is ongoing for samples that are collected and
            tested within the 10-day viraemic period.

            Case management for yellow fever cases is supported by
            Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) in Ebonyi and Bauchi states.

            Yellow fever reactive mass vaccination campaigns (RMVC) have been
            implemented in LGAs in the following states: Edo (5), Ebonyi (3), Ondo (7),
            Delta (1), Benue (3), Cross River (1), Bauchi (1). The 2019 phase 3 preventive
            mass vaccination campaign in Katsina State has been completed.

            Strengthening risk communication capacity through the involvement of relevant
            stakeholders. Public communication and awareness efforts on yellow fever
            (signs, symptoms and vaccinations) are on-going in social media, print media
            and other education and communication material (IEC). Key messages are
            being translated to Jarawa in Bauchi. A review and development of yellow fever
            frequently asked questions (FAQs), and a public health advisory and travel alert
            are ongoing.


            The continuation of the yellow fever outbreak in Nigeria since 2017 with an upsurge
            of reported cases observed in September 2019 is concerning. The low index of
            suspicion for yellow fever among healthcare providers and the poor documentation
            of yellow fever surveillance in many health facilities and across states remains a
            challenge. Routine yellow fever vaccination was introduced to Nigeria’s Expanded
            Programme on Immunization (EPI) in 2004, but the overall population immunity in
            areas affected by the current outbreak remains below herd immunity thresholds.

            According to WHO-UNICEF, national yellow fever vaccination coverage estimate was
            65% in 2018. Nigeria is among high priority countries for the Eliminate Yellow Fever
            Epidemic (EYE) strategy and phased preventive yellow fever vaccination campaigns
            are planned to cover 12 States by 2021.

            "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
            -Nelson Mandela


            • #21
              Yellow fever – Nigeria

              Disease outbreak news: update
              17 December 2019

              Nigeria is responding to successive yellow fever outbreaks, with nearly a three-fold increase in number of confirmed cases in 2019 compared to 2018, suggesting intensification of yellow fever virus transmission. Additionally, there have been cases reported in parts of the country that have confirmed cases for the first time since the outbreak started in September 2017. From 1 January through 10 December 2019, a total of 4,189 suspected yellow fever cases were reported from 604 of 774 Local Government Area (LGAs) across all the 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory in Nigeria.

              Of the total 3,547 samples taken, 207 tested positive for yellow fever by Immunoglobulin M (IgM) in Nigerian network laboratories. In addition, 197 samples from 19 states were confirmed positive using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The case fatality rate for all cases (including suspected, probable and confirmed) is 5.1%, and 12.2% for confirmed cases.

              Sixty-eight per cent (134 cases) of the total (197 cases) confirmed cases were reported from four states, including Bauchi, Katsina, Edo and Ebonyi. Cases in Edo state have declined after a reactive vaccination campaign in late 2018. From 1 January through 10 December 2019, a total of 115 confirmed cases and 23 deaths were reported from Bauchi (62 cases), Katsina (38 cases) and Benue (15 cases). These cases tested positive by RT-PCR at national laboratories and/or RT-PCR and serologic tests at a regional reference laboratory, Institute Pasteur Dakar (IPD). Further epidemiological investigations are underway.

              Public health response

              The outbreak response activities are being coordinated by a multi-agency yellow fever Incident Management System (IMS). On 5 November 2019, an Emergency Operations Centre (EOC) was activated for the third time, in response to the upsurge of confirmed yellow fever cases reported in a wide-geographic distribution including Bauchi, Benue and Katsina. A national rapid response team has been deployed to Bauchi and other affected states to support the outbreak response activities including surveillance, case management support and risk communications.

              In addition to the existing laboratories in the country, new and operational laboratories have been added to the national laboratory network in Abuja, Edo and Enugu states.

              A targeted response has been implemented in Alkaleri Local Government area (LGA) in Bauchi state. However, reports of ongoing transmission indicate that more vaccination and a wider geographical scope is needed. Katsina state has recently completed a state-wide preventive mass vaccination campaign; however, challenges linked to vaccine accountability and access to security-compromised areas may result in pockets of populations with immunity gaps. Risk of spread through population movements exist in neighbouring Kano and Kaduna states where population immunity is low.

              Nigeria is considered a high-risk country by the Eliminate Yellow Fever Epidemics (EYE) strategy. By 2024, it is anticipated that all the states in Nigeria will have undergone campaign activities to protect at-risk populations against yellow fever. This plan may be further updated or accelerated based on risk, vaccine and implementation feasibility. The country is in the process of completing a planned phase-3 vaccination campaign in 2019 and evaluating the recently concluded mass vaccination campaign. WHO risk assessment

              The yellow fever outbreak transmissions reported in Bauchi, Benue and Katsina states since August 2019, with spread to multiple other states, represents an intensification of yellow fever transmission and an elevated risk for yellow fever outbreak to spread and amplify. This is particularly a high risk if yellow fever is introduced into densely populated urban areas where preventive mass vaccination campaigns have not been conducted so far. Areas at risk include those without prior reported cases since 2017 and areas with a large number of under-immunized populations including urban areas such as Kano and Lagos. The preventive mass vaccination campaigns for yellow fever and the ongoing effort to strengthen routine immunization are important activities to reduce the risk of disease spread and amplification.

              WHO continues to monitor the epidemiological situation and review the risk assessment based on the latest available information. Based on available information, WHO currently assesses the overall risk as high at the national level, moderate at the regional level, and low at the global level.

              Nigeria is facing several concurrent public health emergencies, including circulating vaccine-derived polio virus (cVDPV), measles, monkeypox, lassa fever, cholera outbreaks, and a humanitarian crisis in the north-east of the country. WHO advice

              Yellow fever is an acute viral haemorrhagic disease transmitted by infected mosquitoes and has the potential to spread rapidly, with serious public health impacts. There is no specific treatment, although the disease is preventable using a single dose of yellow fever vaccine, which provides lifetime immunity. Supportive care is required to treat dehydration, respiratory failure and fever; antibiotics are recommended to treat associated bacterial infections.

              The early detection and investigation of yellow fever cases through strong surveillance is key to controlling the risk of yellow fever outbreaks. Prevention of mosquito bites (e.g. repellents, wearing long clothes) is an additional measure that limits the risk of yellow fever transmission. In urban centres, targeted vector control measures are also helpful to interrupt transmission.

              WHO recommends vaccination against yellow fever for all international travelers more than nine months of age going to Nigeria, as there is evidence of persistent or periodic yellow fever virus transmission. Nigeria also requires a yellow fever vaccination certificate for travelers older than one year of age arriving from countries with risk of yellow fever transmission.

              Yellow fever vaccines approved by WHO are safe, highly effective and provide life-long protection against infection. In the context of international travel, the amendment to Annex 7 of the International Health Regulations (IHR 2005) changes the period of validity of the related international certificate of vaccination against yellow fever, and the protection provided by vaccination against yellow fever infection from ten (10) years to the life of the person (traveler) vaccinated. Accordingly, as of 11 July 2016, for both existing or new certificates, revaccination or a booster dose of yellow fever vaccine cannot be required of international travelers as a condition of entry into a State Party, regardless of the date their international certificate of vaccination was initially issued.

              On 1st July 2019, WHO updated the areas at-risk of yellow fever transmission and the corresponding recommendations for vaccination of international travelers. The list of countries at-risk, and revised recommendations for vaccination against yellow fever are available on the WHO website: International travel and health (ITH).

              WHO encourages its Member States to take all actions necessary to keep travelers well informed of risks and of preventive measures, including vaccination. Travelers should also be made aware of yellow fever signs and symptoms and instructed to seek rapid medical advice should they develop signs of illness. Travelers returning to Nigeria who may be infected with possible high levels of the virus in the blood may pose a risk for the establishment of local cycles of yellow fever transmission in areas where the competent vector is present.

              WHO does not recommend any restrictions on travel or trade to Nigeria on the basis of the information available on this outbreak.

              For more information on yellow fever, please see:


              • #22

                Yellow fever kills three in Plateau
                By Isa Abdulsalami Ahovi, Jos
                29 December 2019 | 3:32 am

                The World Health Organisation (WHO) has confirmed 13 cases of Yellow Fever, which has resulted in three deaths in four local government areas of Plateau State.

                WHO State Coordinator, Wonk Vingey Bassey, confirmed the incident while presenting a report on a survey conducted on affected councils during an emergency stakeholders’ meeting in Jos.

                The meeting followed the outbreak of the disease in Jos North, Bassa, Riyom and Wase local government areas of the state.

                Bassey, who gave the breakdown according to councils, said the deaths were recorded in Wase local government...


                • #23

                  Plateau confirms 25 cases of yellow fever
                  By Isa Abdulsalami Ahovi, Jos
                  19 January 2020 | 3:25 am

                  Of the 141 suspected yellow fever cases in Jos North, Wase, Bassa, Kanam and Riyom Local Governments of Plateau State, 25 cases have been confirmed.

                  Following the yellow fever outbreak, the rapid response team from the Nigeria Centre for Disease Control, Abuja and National Primary Healthcare Development Agency were dispatched to the state for analysis and investigation...