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  • Shiloh
    replied
    Source: https://www.who.int/csr/don/24-novem...er-nigeria/en/


    Yellow fever – Nigeria


    Disease outbreak news
    24 November 2020



    Reports of a cluster of deaths from an undiagnosed disease were notified on 1 November 2020 through Event Based Surveillance in two states, Delta and Enugu, located in southern Nigeria. The Delta State health surveillance system had been informed of the outbreak on 30 October 2020, following a cluster of deaths presenting with similar symptoms.
    Figure 1. Epidemic curve of suspected cases for Delta and Bauchi states






    Enlarge image



    On 2 November 2020, the Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) reported to WHO a cluster of deaths in Ute Okpu community in Ika North-East local government area (LGA) of Delta State. Additional cases were reported from 4 other wards of Ika North-East (Idumessah, Owa Alero, Owanta, and Umunede). A preliminary report for Delta State on 5 November 2020, notified of 48 suspected cases of yellow fever (YF) with 30 deaths (CFR 62.5%). The most frequent symptoms included 1-week history of fever, vomiting (with or without blood), bleeding, seizures, and unconsciousness. One patient was reported to have cough, sore throat, and hiccups. Of those 48 reported cases, the main occupation was farmers, and males were predominantly affected (75%). The YF vaccination status of most of the suspected cases is unknown. The index case developed symptoms on 24 July 2020 and died on 28 July 2020. Preliminary investigation did not reveal any significant travel history. Two blood samples were collected, along with nasal and throat swabs on 31 October 2020. Laboratory investigations were carried out at the mobile laboratory of Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital (ISTH) in Delta State. All blood samples tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were negative for Lassa fever and the throat swab was negative for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 . Six more blood samples were collected and sent to ISTH, Edo State and all were negative for Lassa fever, while three were positive for YF by PCR. As of 10 November 2020, 65 suspected cases, including 33 deaths, have been reported. Samples were collected from 27 cases and seven have tested positive for yellow fever by PCR.

    On 4 November 2020, the Enugu State epidemiologist reported a cluster of deaths of unknown cause to NCDC. Investigations by the Rapid Response team for Enugu State on 4 November 2020 reported 10 deaths, with the majority being males aged 4 to 65 years old and with occupations as farmers. The most frequent symptoms included high grade fever, convulsion, and eventually coma, in addition to blood in the urine, mouth bleeding, bleeding in the respiratory tract, blood shot eyes and pain in the flank. The suggestive differential diagnosis was Lassa fever, YF, cerebrospinal meningitis and COVID-19. A total of 13 blood samples were collected and sent to the National Reference Laboratory in Abuja to be tested for viral haemorrhagic fevers. Results received on 10 November 2020 showed 6 PCR positive YF cases in Enugu State.

    On 8 November 2020, Bauchi State reported 8 samples tested by PCR at the NCDC National Reference Laboratory positive for YF (7/8 from Ganjuwa LGA, 1/8 unknown LGA). Four of these samples were also IgM positive for YF. Detailed case investigations are ongoing, and the line list is currently being updated.

    On 15 November 2020, 3 PCR positive samples for yellow fever were reported from Ogbadibo LGA in Benue State. These samples were also tested at the NCDC, National Reference Laboratory. Additionally, there has been a PCR positive sample for YF reported from Ohaukwu LGA in Ebonyi State. This LGA has also been the location of a cluster of probable YF cases that were IgM positive at national reference laboratory and had dates of onset July-August 2020. Security challenges in the LGA had hindered full investigation and work-up at the time of initial notification.

    The outbreak encompasses 5 states in Nigeria: Delta, Enugu, Bauchi, and Benue and Ebonyi (Figure 2).
    Figure 2. Geographic distribution of affected states and local government areas in Nigeria






    Enlarge image



    Nigeria is facing concurrent outbreaks of multiple pathogens. Delta State, located in the South-South geo-political zone of the country, is one of the Lassa fever affected states, though not considered one of the YF hot spot states. In 2020, 18 Lassa fever cases have been laboratory confirmed from 140 suspected cases, including 3 fatalities. Enugu state, in the South-East geopolitical zone of the country, shares boundaries with Benue (Ogbadibo LGA) where there are 3 confirmed cases of Lassa fever, and Ebonyi state which is one of the hotspot states for the Lassa fever outbreak. To date, 10 Lassa fever cases have been reported from Enugu state since the start of the year, including 2 fatalities (20% CFR). While Lassa fever cases are reported year-round, the peak period is December to April.

    The relative proximity of Delta, Enugu, Benue and Ebonyi states with Lagos is an added concern, though population movements (and hence risk of spread) may have been reduced in the COVID-19 context. However, there is a lack of data on this, and the risk of spread should be monitored.

    COVID-19 response efforts demand an extraordinary amount of time and resources from the country’s health system while lockdowns, travel restrictions and other mitigations to slow the spread have severely disrupted access to core essential health services. National and state authorities are currently focused on the COVID-19 pandemic, limiting the human resources required to conduct investigations and response activities for the YF outbreaks. Recent relaxation of COVID-19 measures will increase population mobility thereby increasing the risk for amplification of yellow fever, especially if introduced into urban centres. Population mobility in urban settings can be particularly challenging in conducting mass vaccination campaigns due to the size and diagnostic challenges of the operation (SAGE 2016). As of 23 November 2020, 66 383 COVID cases, including 1 167 deaths, have been reported in Nigeria.
    Public health response


    The current response at central level:
    • As of 7 November 2020, the National Emergency Operations Centre (EOC) for Yellow Fever was activated and led by NCDC, in close coordination with the State yellow fever EOC in the affected states
    • Coordination and deployment of technical support to affected states to ensure quality detailed investigations and response
    • Ensuring transport of positive samples to the regional reference laboratory, Institute Pasteur Dakar, for second stage confirmation
    • The designated national reference laboratories for testing (Central Public Health Laboratories and National Reference Laboratory) are currently testing samples using serology and PCR respectively
    • Reagents and consumables are available in all testing laboratories
    • Pictorial aids for YF case management has been updated and is being finalized
    • Development of an Incident Action Plan (IAP) for the response is ongoing
    • Case definitions for active case search have been developed and shared with the affected states
    • Daily monitoring and analysis of surveillance data from the affected states using the Surveillance Outbreak Response Management and Analysis System (SORMAS)
    • Engaging with Rapid Response Teams and State Epidemiologists for daily updates
    • Publishing press releases to update Nigerians on the YF situation in the country and provide information
    • Ongoing rumour monitoring across social and traditional media platforms
    • Dissemination of prevention messages across NCDC social media platforms
    • Two organised interviews on Channels TV Abuja & Wazobia FM Lagos
    • Conducting risk assessments in YF high risk states/ LGAs and ensuring active case searching in communities
    • Provision of national guidance to states on implementing quality vaccination response aligned to COVID-19 prevention standards for campaigns
    • The country is supporting entomological studies in Enugu, by the National Arbovirus Research Center (NAVRC)

    The current response for Delta State:
    • An accelerated preventive yellow fever mass vaccination campaign ongoing in the affected LGA (Ika North-East LGA) Line listing of cases and active case searching in health facilities and communities
    • Risk communication activities and community engagement have been intensified in Ika North-East LGA on the risk of YF and steps to take to protect communities (e.g. vaccination, vector control)
    • Case management of suspected cases at a designated treatment centre (Federal Medical Centre, Asaba)
    • A state-wide YF preventive mass vaccination campaign is planned at the end of November 2020 that can be leveraged to accelerate the response

    The current response for the cases in Enugu State:
    • An expanded emergency operation center for COVID-19 response to respond to the yellow fever outbreak on the risk of yellow fever and steps to take to protect communities (e.g. vaccination, vector control)
    • Community mobilization to all traditional rulers, town union presidents and other opinion leaders in Igbo-Eze North LGA
    • Intensified active search for suspected YF cases in the communities and health facilities
    • A case management center has been identified at the General Hospital Ogrute, Enugu-Ezike of Igbo-Eze North LGA)
    • Needs assessment for General Hospital Enugu – Ezike has been completed for designation as a treatment center in Enugu State
    • International Coordinating Group request is under preparation for a reactive vaccination campaign in the affected LGA

    The current response for the cases in Bauchi State:
    • Detailed case investigation in process
    • Line listing of cases
    • Offsite support being given to response team pending the conclusion of the preliminary investigation
    • A state-wide YF preventive mass vaccination campaign planned in Bauchi in February 2021 can be leveraged and accelerated to support the response

    The current response for the cases in Benue State:
    • Detailed case investigation in process
    • Line-listing being updated with 27 reported cases so far on the list
    • Offsite support being given to response team pending the conclusion of the preliminary investigation
    • As one of the high-risk states a preventive mass vaccination campaign is scheduled for 20 November 2020

    Nigeria is considered a high-risk country by the Eliminate Yellow Fever Epidemics (EYE) strategy. Routine yellow fever vaccination was introduced to Nigeria’s Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) in 2004 with an estimated coverage of 54% (2019), with lower figures in some sub-groups. Population immunity against yellow fever in many areas around the country remains below herd immunity thresholds: the MICS 2016/2017 indicated that YF vaccination was 39% in children aged 12 to 23 months. To address the risk of outbreaks and increase population immunity, the EYE strategy PMVC component is being implemented in phases. There are over 30 million doses of YF vaccine in the country for PMVCs – with Delta and Bauchi among the states planned for the current phase of activities. Delta state was already scheduled for a PMVC in 2020. One LGA in Delta state and 4 LGAs in Bauchi state had a vaccination campaign in 2019. This YF vaccine supply and associated preparations could serve to meet the needs of outbreak response. The supplies also include resources such as PPE and hand sanitizers for COVID-19 prevention in a mass vaccination campaign. Enugu and Ebonyi are not included in the current planned PMVCs, however there is a possibility that vaccines and associated supplies in the country might help support an immediate response. By 2024, it is anticipated that all the states in Nigeria will have undergone campaign activities to protect at-risk populations against yellow fever. This plan may be further updated or accelerated based on risk, vaccine availability, and implementation feasibility.
    WHO risk assessment


    Nigeria is a high-risk country for yellow fever. The re-emergence of yellow fever in September 2017 in Nigeria has been marked by outbreaks over a wide geographical area. The yellow fever outbreaks reported in Bauchi, Benue and Katsina states from August to November 2019, with spread to multiple other states showed an expansion of YF transmission, and an elevated risk for YF outbreaks to rapidly spread and amplify, impacting areas without prior reported cases since 2017 and in areas with large under immunized populations. In the current year, suspected YF cases have been reported from all 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) and confirmed YF cases across 9 states (Delta, Enugu, Bauchi, Benue, Kogi, Oyo, Edo Kwara and Katsina). These new outbreaks in Bauchi, Delta and Enugu are affecting areas without prior reported cases this year and suggest underlying sustained high viral transmission in the epizootic cycle with spillover to human populations. Due to: the risk of spread to other states with under-immunized populations, including to large urban centers; the high CFR; the potential for ongoing local transmission and amplification due to suboptimal vaccination coverage; and the occurrence of cases in peri-urban areas (e.g. in Delta State) and densely populated LGAs with proximity to Lagos, the risk is high.

    There is no entomological information currently available for the affected LGAs, however previous entomological surveys conducted in 2018/2019 during outbreaks in settings of similar climate and vegetation in Ebonyi, Bauchi, Edo, Kogi and Kwara identified adult Aedes spp. mosquitos However, the region is entering the dry season (November to March) and vector densities are expected to be lower. The vector, Aedes aegypti is only moderately affected by drier conditions and remains active, and therefore sustained vector-borne transmission within human populations cannot be ruled out.

    Nigeria is facing several concurrent public health emergencies, including circulating Vaccine Derived Polio Virus (cVDPV), measles, monkeypox, Lassa fever and cholera outbreaks as well as humanitarian crisis in the northeast of the country. WHO continues to monitor the epidemiological situation and review the risk assessment based on the latest available information. At present, the Yellow Fever outbreaks are considered high risk at national level, low at regional and global levels.
    WHO advice


    Yellow fever is an acute viral haemorrhagic disease transmitted by infected mosquitoes and has the potential to spread rapidly and cause serious public health impact. There is no specific treatment, although the disease is preventable using a single dose of yellow fever vaccine, which provides immunity for life. Supportive care to treat dehydration, respiratory failure and fever and antibiotic treatment for associated bacterial infections can reduce mortality and is recommended.

    Yellow fever is endemic in Nigeria, a priority country for the EYE strategy. Accelerated phased YF PMVCs are planned to cover the entire country by 2024. Vaccination is the primary intervention for prevention and control of yellow fever. In urban centres, targeted vector control measures are also helpful to interrupt transmission. WHO and partners will continue to support local authorities to implement these interventions to control the current outbreak.

    WHO recommends vaccination against yellow fever for all international travellers from 9 months of age going to Nigeria. Nigeria requires a yellow fever vaccination certificate for all travellers aged 9 months or over as a condition of entry.

    Yellow fever vaccines recommended by WHO are safe, highly effective and provide life-long protection against infection. In accordance with the IHR (2005), the validity of the international certificate of vaccination against yellow fever extends to the life of the person vaccinated with a WHO approved vaccine. A booster dose of approved yellow fever vaccine cannot be required of international travellers as a condition of entry.

    WHO encourages Member States to take all actions necessary to keep travellers well informed of risks and preventive measures, including vaccination. Travellers should also be made aware of yellow fever symptoms and signs and are instructed to seek rapid medical advice when presenting signs. Viraemic returning travellers may pose a risk for the establishment of local cycles of yellow fever transmission in areas where the competent vector is present.

    The updated areas at-risk for yellow fever transmission and the related recommendations for vaccination of international travellers were updated by WHO on 1 July 2020 and are available on the WHO International Travel and Health website (see below).

    WHO does not recommend any restrictions on travel or trade to Nigeria based on the information available on this outbreak.

    For more information on yellow fever, please see:

    Leave a comment:


  • Shiloh
    replied
    Source: https://www.vanguardngr.com/2020/11/...nated-at-risk/

    DEATHS FROM ‘STRANGE DISEASE’: 222 suspected cases of Yellow Fever, over 100m unvaccinated at risk
    On November 22, 202010:08 am
    By Chioma Obinna

    Years after Nigeria reduced the prevalence of Yellow Fever, YF, the disease has ferociously returned and is spreading across the country.

    Experts say that if not checked, the fever may spread across the 36 states of the country as Nigeria has a huge population of unvaccinated and unprotected people against the disease.

    Nigeria, in past few weeks, has witnessed a re-emergence of YF following laboratory confirmation by the Nigeria Centre of Disease Control, NCDC, of what was initially tagged as “mysterious deaths from strange disease.”

    Since then, the trend has continued unabated in more states like Benue apart from Delta and Enugu and Bauchi where it has been confirmed as YF.

    According to the Director-General of NCDC, Dr. Chikwe Iheakweazu, as of November 13, 2020, a total of 222 suspected cases, 19 confirmed cases and 76 deaths have been reported in Bauchi, Delta and Enugu.

    Most of the deaths occurred before laboratory samples were collected for testing....

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  • Shiloh
    replied
    Source: https://punchng.com/breaking-yellow-...ee-enugu-lgas/

    Yellow fever outbreak spreads to three Enugu LGAs
    Published November 16, 2020
    Raphael Ede, Enugu

    There was palpable tension in Enugu State on Monday following the report of a suspected Yellow Fever outbreak in three more local government areas of the state.

    Enugu State had been battling to contain the outbreak of the disease in two communities of Ette Uno and Umuopu in Igbo-Eze North Local Government Area of the state, which reportedly claimed 52 lives between late October when the outbreak was first reported and November 2020.

    The state government has also confirmed it had received reports of strange deaths within communities in Nsukka, Isi-Uzo, and Igbo-Etiti LGAs.

    A statement by the Commissioner of Health, Prof Ikechukwu Obi, released on Sunday night, disclosed that the ministry’s Rapid Response Team, LGA Rapid Response Teams in collaboration with International and National Partners had visited the communities to investigate the reports and had taken samples for testing...

    Leave a comment:


  • Shiloh
    replied
    Source: https://www.premiumtimesng.com/news/...days-ncdc.html

    Three states report 76 deaths from yellow fever in 11 days – NCDC
    The NCDC said it is responding to the latest yellow fever outbreak.
    byEbuka OnyejiandAgency Report
    November 13, 2020

    The Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) says three states have recently reported a total of 76 deaths suspected to be from yellow fever.
    Bauchi, Delta and Enugu states reported that the deaths occured between November 1 and 11, the Director General of NCDC, Chikwe Ihekweazu, told the News Agency of Nigeria.

    PREMIUM TIMES reported the recent fatalities from ‘strange illnesses’ suspected to be yellow fever in these states.

    On Friday, Mr Ihekweazu told NAN that the cases and deaths were reported to the agency by the state epidemiologists of the three affected states.

    He disclosed that 74 suspected cases involving 35 deaths were reported from Delta State, 70 suspected cases with 33 deaths from Enugu, and 78 suspected cases with eight deaths from Bauchi State, respectively...

    Leave a comment:


  • Shiloh
    replied
    Source: https://dailypost.ng/2020/11/09/yell...ves-in-bauchi/

    Yellow fever claims 8 lives in Bauchi
    Published on November 9, 2020
    By Hafsat Abdulhamid

    A yellow fever outbreak in Ganjuea Local Government Area of Bauchi State has claimed the lives of eight persons in the area.

    This was revealed to journalists in Bauchi on Monday by the Executive Chairman of Bauchi State Primary Health Care Development Agency (BASPHCDA), Dr Rilwanu Mohammed.

    Apart from the eight lives lost to the outbreak, Dr Mohammed informed that eight other positive cases in the area are currently being managed...

    Leave a comment:


  • Gert van der Hoek
    replied
    Dozens of people dead as Nigeria battles yellow fever, amid coronavirus

    Authorities in Enugu said a strange ailment, now known to be yellow fever, had claimed over 50 lives in parts of the state since early September.


    November 8, 2020

    As Nigeria’s battle against the coronavirus intensifies with fears of a second wave, another deadly infectious disease is on the rise with dozens of fatalities already recorded.

    The Nigerian Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) on Saturday confirmed that reported deaths from a “strange illness” in Enugu and Delta states in recent weeks were caused by yellow fever, an acute viral haemorrhagic disease that can kill within 10 days if symptoms become severe.
    Authorities in Enugu said a strange ailment, now known to be yellow fever, had claimed over 50 lives in parts of the state since early September.

    Leave a comment:


  • Shiloh
    replied
    Source: https://www.vanguardngr.com/2020/11/...use-of-deaths/

    STRANGE DISEASE: Delta govt unravels cause of deaths On November 6, 20205:06 pmIn
    By Festus Ahon - Asaba

    Delta State Government, Friday, said it has unravelled the cause of deaths of over 30 youths in Ute-Okpu, Ute-Erumu and Idumesa communities in Ika North East Local Government Area of the State, saying the deaths were caused by yellow fever.

    The State Commissioner for Health, Dr Mordi Ononye who made the disclosure while briefing newsmen, said laboratory results of the samples collected pointed to the age-long disease.

    Flanked by the Commissioner for Information, Mr Charles Aniagwu and the State Director General of Orientation Bureau, Mr Eugene Uzum, Ononye, however, explained that the results would further be authenticated at the Reference Region Laboratory in Dakar, Senegal where the samples have also be sent to.

    Hear him: “Samples were collected from patients and sent to the laboratory. We have received results and the results point to yellow fever as the cause of deaths we heard of in those areas.

    “The result we have received is helping to move us to a more definitive action, while we still wait for a final authentication from the Reference Regional Laboratory in Dakar”...

    Leave a comment:


  • Shiloh
    replied
    Source: https://guardian.ng/news/plateau-con...-yellow-fever/

    Plateau confirms 25 cases of yellow fever
    By Isa Abdulsalami Ahovi, Jos
    19 January 2020 | 3:25 am

    Of the 141 suspected yellow fever cases in Jos North, Wase, Bassa, Kanam and Riyom Local Governments of Plateau State, 25 cases have been confirmed.

    Following the yellow fever outbreak, the rapid response team from the Nigeria Centre for Disease Control, Abuja and National Primary Healthcare Development Agency were dispatched to the state for analysis and investigation...

    Leave a comment:


  • Shiloh
    replied
    Source: https://guardian.ng/news/yellow-feve...ee-in-plateau/

    Yellow fever kills three in Plateau
    By Isa Abdulsalami Ahovi, Jos
    29 December 2019 | 3:32 am

    The World Health Organisation (WHO) has confirmed 13 cases of Yellow Fever, which has resulted in three deaths in four local government areas of Plateau State.

    WHO State Coordinator, Wonk Vingey Bassey, confirmed the incident while presenting a report on a survey conducted on affected councils during an emergency stakeholders’ meeting in Jos.

    The meeting followed the outbreak of the disease in Jos North, Bassa, Riyom and Wase local government areas of the state.

    Bassey, who gave the breakdown according to councils, said the deaths were recorded in Wase local government...

    Leave a comment:


  • Shiloh
    replied
    Source: https://www.who.int/csr/don/17-decem...er-nigeria/en/
    Yellow fever – Nigeria

    Disease outbreak news: update
    17 December 2019



    Nigeria is responding to successive yellow fever outbreaks, with nearly a three-fold increase in number of confirmed cases in 2019 compared to 2018, suggesting intensification of yellow fever virus transmission. Additionally, there have been cases reported in parts of the country that have confirmed cases for the first time since the outbreak started in September 2017. From 1 January through 10 December 2019, a total of 4,189 suspected yellow fever cases were reported from 604 of 774 Local Government Area (LGAs) across all the 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory in Nigeria.

    Of the total 3,547 samples taken, 207 tested positive for yellow fever by Immunoglobulin M (IgM) in Nigerian network laboratories. In addition, 197 samples from 19 states were confirmed positive using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The case fatality rate for all cases (including suspected, probable and confirmed) is 5.1%, and 12.2% for confirmed cases.

    Sixty-eight per cent (134 cases) of the total (197 cases) confirmed cases were reported from four states, including Bauchi, Katsina, Edo and Ebonyi. Cases in Edo state have declined after a reactive vaccination campaign in late 2018. From 1 January through 10 December 2019, a total of 115 confirmed cases and 23 deaths were reported from Bauchi (62 cases), Katsina (38 cases) and Benue (15 cases). These cases tested positive by RT-PCR at national laboratories and/or RT-PCR and serologic tests at a regional reference laboratory, Institute Pasteur Dakar (IPD). Further epidemiological investigations are underway.

    Public health response

    The outbreak response activities are being coordinated by a multi-agency yellow fever Incident Management System (IMS). On 5 November 2019, an Emergency Operations Centre (EOC) was activated for the third time, in response to the upsurge of confirmed yellow fever cases reported in a wide-geographic distribution including Bauchi, Benue and Katsina. A national rapid response team has been deployed to Bauchi and other affected states to support the outbreak response activities including surveillance, case management support and risk communications.

    In addition to the existing laboratories in the country, new and operational laboratories have been added to the national laboratory network in Abuja, Edo and Enugu states.

    A targeted response has been implemented in Alkaleri Local Government area (LGA) in Bauchi state. However, reports of ongoing transmission indicate that more vaccination and a wider geographical scope is needed. Katsina state has recently completed a state-wide preventive mass vaccination campaign; however, challenges linked to vaccine accountability and access to security-compromised areas may result in pockets of populations with immunity gaps. Risk of spread through population movements exist in neighbouring Kano and Kaduna states where population immunity is low.

    Nigeria is considered a high-risk country by the Eliminate Yellow Fever Epidemics (EYE) strategy. By 2024, it is anticipated that all the states in Nigeria will have undergone campaign activities to protect at-risk populations against yellow fever. This plan may be further updated or accelerated based on risk, vaccine and implementation feasibility. The country is in the process of completing a planned phase-3 vaccination campaign in 2019 and evaluating the recently concluded mass vaccination campaign. WHO risk assessment

    The yellow fever outbreak transmissions reported in Bauchi, Benue and Katsina states since August 2019, with spread to multiple other states, represents an intensification of yellow fever transmission and an elevated risk for yellow fever outbreak to spread and amplify. This is particularly a high risk if yellow fever is introduced into densely populated urban areas where preventive mass vaccination campaigns have not been conducted so far. Areas at risk include those without prior reported cases since 2017 and areas with a large number of under-immunized populations including urban areas such as Kano and Lagos. The preventive mass vaccination campaigns for yellow fever and the ongoing effort to strengthen routine immunization are important activities to reduce the risk of disease spread and amplification.

    WHO continues to monitor the epidemiological situation and review the risk assessment based on the latest available information. Based on available information, WHO currently assesses the overall risk as high at the national level, moderate at the regional level, and low at the global level.

    Nigeria is facing several concurrent public health emergencies, including circulating vaccine-derived polio virus (cVDPV), measles, monkeypox, lassa fever, cholera outbreaks, and a humanitarian crisis in the north-east of the country. WHO advice

    Yellow fever is an acute viral haemorrhagic disease transmitted by infected mosquitoes and has the potential to spread rapidly, with serious public health impacts. There is no specific treatment, although the disease is preventable using a single dose of yellow fever vaccine, which provides lifetime immunity. Supportive care is required to treat dehydration, respiratory failure and fever; antibiotics are recommended to treat associated bacterial infections.

    The early detection and investigation of yellow fever cases through strong surveillance is key to controlling the risk of yellow fever outbreaks. Prevention of mosquito bites (e.g. repellents, wearing long clothes) is an additional measure that limits the risk of yellow fever transmission. In urban centres, targeted vector control measures are also helpful to interrupt transmission.

    WHO recommends vaccination against yellow fever for all international travelers more than nine months of age going to Nigeria, as there is evidence of persistent or periodic yellow fever virus transmission. Nigeria also requires a yellow fever vaccination certificate for travelers older than one year of age arriving from countries with risk of yellow fever transmission.

    Yellow fever vaccines approved by WHO are safe, highly effective and provide life-long protection against infection. In the context of international travel, the amendment to Annex 7 of the International Health Regulations (IHR 2005) changes the period of validity of the related international certificate of vaccination against yellow fever, and the protection provided by vaccination against yellow fever infection from ten (10) years to the life of the person (traveler) vaccinated. Accordingly, as of 11 July 2016, for both existing or new certificates, revaccination or a booster dose of yellow fever vaccine cannot be required of international travelers as a condition of entry into a State Party, regardless of the date their international certificate of vaccination was initially issued.

    On 1st July 2019, WHO updated the areas at-risk of yellow fever transmission and the corresponding recommendations for vaccination of international travelers. The list of countries at-risk, and revised recommendations for vaccination against yellow fever are available on the WHO website: International travel and health (ITH).

    WHO encourages its Member States to take all actions necessary to keep travelers well informed of risks and of preventive measures, including vaccination. Travelers should also be made aware of yellow fever signs and symptoms and instructed to seek rapid medical advice should they develop signs of illness. Travelers returning to Nigeria who may be infected with possible high levels of the virus in the blood may pose a risk for the establishment of local cycles of yellow fever transmission in areas where the competent vector is present.

    WHO does not recommend any restrictions on travel or trade to Nigeria on the basis of the information available on this outbreak.

    For more information on yellow fever, please see:

    Leave a comment:


  • Pathfinder
    replied
    WEEKLY BULLETIN ON OUTBREAKS
    AND OTHER EMERGENCIES

    Week 46: 11 - 17 November 2019
    Data as reported by: 17:00; 17 November 2019
    ...

    Nigeria Yellow fever

    3 620 Cases
    150 Deaths
    4.1% CFR

    EVENT DESCRIPTION

    The outbreak of yellow fever which started in Nigeria in September
    2017 is ongoing. Since 1 August 2019, Nigeria has been experiencing
    an upsurge of yellow fever cases reported mainly from six states
    across the two northern zones namely: Bauchi, Benue, Borno,
    Gombe, Kano and Katsina states. Concurrently, suspected cases
    continue to be reported across all the 36 states and the Federal
    Capital Territory (FCT).

    In October 2019, between weeks 40 and 44, a total of 839 suspected
    cases were reported from all the 36 states and the FCT including 35
    presumptive positive samples (IgM positive). Of these, 72 cases were
    confirmed positive for yellow fever by RT-PCR at two laboratories
    including the WHO reference laboratory, Institut Pasteur Dakar (IPD),
    (41 cases) and the NCDC National Reference Laboratory (NRL) in
    Abuja (31 cases). During this month, two new states (Plateau and
    Taraba) recorded confirmed cases of yellow fever.

    From 1 January to 31 October 2019 (epidemiological week 44), a
    total of 3 620 suspected yellow fever cases have been reported in
    588 LGAs from 36 states and the FCT. Among the 135-presumptive
    positive and 42 inconclusive samples, 80 were confirmed positive
    at the IP Dakar. Additionally, 33 samples were confirmed at the NRL
    and 31 at Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), this brings the
    total to 144 confirmed cases. These cases are distributed across 18
    states: Katsina (44), Bauchi (33), Edo (19), Ebonyi (15), Benue (6),
    Gombe (6), Ondo (6), Borno (4), Kebbi (2), Cross River (1), Anambra
    (1), Imo (1), Kano (1), Sokoto (1), Taraba (1), Oyo (1), Osun (1) and
    Plateau (1). One hundred and fifty deaths have been reported among
    all yellow fever cases and 11 deaths among confirmed cases from
    Bauchi (7) and Ebonyi (4). This resulted in a case fatality ratio of
    4.1% among suspected cases and 7.6% among confirmed cases.
    Between weeks 1 and 35 of 2019, the weekly case incidence has
    fluctuated between 50 to 100 cases. A sharp increase in the number
    of cases was observed from week 35 (week ending 1 September
    2019) until week 38 (week ending 22 September 2019) when
    the outbreak peaked with over 190 cases reported. Since then, a
    stepwise decrease in the trend has been observed with fewer than 10
    cases reported in week 43 (week ending 27 October 2019).

    PUBLIC HEALTH ACTIONS

    The Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) activated
    a national Emergency Operations Centre (EOC) on the 5
    November 2019 to ensure a well-coordinated response and
    quick control of the outbreak.

    Three rapid response teams (RRT) were deployed for
    immediate investigation of confirmed cases and to support
    response activities in the affected states including Katsina,
    Bauchi and Benue.

    Active surveillance has been enhanced across the country,
    including active case search and case investigation of alerts.
    Finalization of the new testing algorithm is underway, with
    ongoing operationalization of the new laboratories added
    to the national laboratory network in Abuja, Edo and Enugu.
    Furthermore, molecular testing for in-country confirmation
    of yellow fever is ongoing for samples that are collected and
    tested within the 10-day viraemic period.

    Case management for yellow fever cases is supported by
    Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) in Ebonyi and Bauchi states.

    Yellow fever reactive mass vaccination campaigns (RMVC) have been
    implemented in LGAs in the following states: Edo (5), Ebonyi (3), Ondo (7),
    Delta (1), Benue (3), Cross River (1), Bauchi (1). The 2019 phase 3 preventive
    mass vaccination campaign in Katsina State has been completed.

    Strengthening risk communication capacity through the involvement of relevant
    stakeholders. Public communication and awareness efforts on yellow fever
    (signs, symptoms and vaccinations) are on-going in social media, print media
    and other education and communication material (IEC). Key messages are
    being translated to Jarawa in Bauchi. A review and development of yellow fever
    frequently asked questions (FAQs), and a public health advisory and travel alert
    are ongoing.

    SITUATION INTERPRETATION

    The continuation of the yellow fever outbreak in Nigeria since 2017 with an upsurge
    of reported cases observed in September 2019 is concerning. The low index of
    suspicion for yellow fever among healthcare providers and the poor documentation
    of yellow fever surveillance in many health facilities and across states remains a
    challenge. Routine yellow fever vaccination was introduced to Nigeria’s Expanded
    Programme on Immunization (EPI) in 2004, but the overall population immunity in
    areas affected by the current outbreak remains below herd immunity thresholds.

    According to WHO-UNICEF, national yellow fever vaccination coverage estimate was
    65% in 2018. Nigeria is among high priority countries for the Eliminate Yellow Fever
    Epidemic (EYE) strategy and phased preventive yellow fever vaccination campaigns
    are planned to cover 12 States by 2021.

    https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/...6-18112019.pdf
    https://www.afro.who.int/publication...-november-2019

    Leave a comment:


  • Shiloh
    replied
    Source: http://cajnewsafrica.com/2019/11/12/...00-in-nigeria/

    Yellow fever claims over 100 in Nigeria
    from EMEKA OKONKWO in Abuja, Nigeria

    ABUJA, (CAJ News) – NIGERIA is battling an outbreak of the yellow fever virus that has killed more than 100 people since August.

    The northwestern Bauchi State is the most affected with 77 deaths from some 600 cases.

    At least 24 people have died from 183 confirmed cases in the northern Bauchi.

    Benue, also in the north has reported 150 cases but no deaths have been reported.

    Nigeria has activated a multi-agency yellow fever Emergency Operations Centre (EOC) in response to the increasing cases...

    Leave a comment:


  • Shiloh
    replied
    Source: https://www.dailytrust.com.ng/3-rapi...ak-surges.html

    3 rapid-response teams deployed as yellow fever outbreak surges
    By Judd-Leonard Okafor | Published Date Nov 8, 2019 21:10 PM TwitterFacebookWhatsAppTelegram Vaccination healthcare concept.

    Three rapid-response teams have been deployed to Katsina, Bauchi and Benue this week to support response to outbreak of Yellow fever.
    There’s been an upsurge of cases of yellow fever between August 1 and November 5 this year.

    Some 511 cases suspected to be yellow fever have come from the three states—309 from Katsina, 162 from Bauchi, and 40 from Benue...

    Leave a comment:


  • Shiloh
    replied
    Source: https://punchng.com/yellow-fever-out...ves-in-bauchi/

    Yellow fever kills 29 in Bauchi
    Published November 7, 2019

    Chairman, Bauchi State Primary Healthcare Development Agency, Dr. Rilwanu Mohammed, said on Thursday that 29 people had died from an outbreak of yellow fever in the state.

    Mohammed disclosed this while briefing newsmen on the outbreak of yellow fever in the state.

    “We discovered 224 suspected cases, and 29 were confirmed dead, with 24 in Alkaleri local government, two in Bauchi local government, one in Darazo council area and two in Ningi local government,” he said.

    Mohammed explained that the virus was first detected in Alkaleri council area in September, adding that efforts had since been on to avoid further spread...

    Leave a comment:


  • Shiloh
    replied
    Source: https://www.dailytrust.com.ng/again-...in-bauchi.html

    Again suspected yellow fever outbreak kills 10 in Bauchi
    By Hassan Ibrahim, Bauchi | Published Date Nov 3, 2019 15:46 PM

    Another suspected yellow fever outbreak has killed 10 people in different communities of Ningi local government area of Bauchi state Two health workers at the Tipchi Primary Healthcare Centre, are currently struck down with the suspected disease in the new outbreak.

    The affected communities include Tipchi, Deru, Sabon Gari, Tudun Wada and Barawo, all in Burra District, Ningi LGA of the state.

    One of the affected health worker at the Tipchi Primary Health Care Centre, who don’t want be named, said “As I am talking to you I am also affected by the the disease that resisted all manners of medication in the hospital. I am currently at home with high fever. I couldn’t even go to work. My female colleagues is also down with this high fever for the past one week but is now recuperating.”

    He revealed that the outbreak started almost four weeks ago and the center had reported the issues to the local government primary health care department, but there was no positive response yet...

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