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J Korean Med Sci . Vaccine Effectiveness Against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Reinfection by Type and Frequency of Vaccine: A Community-Based Case-Control Study

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  • J Korean Med Sci . Vaccine Effectiveness Against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Reinfection by Type and Frequency of Vaccine: A Community-Based Case-Control Study

    J Korean Med Sci


    . 2024 Jun 3;39(21):e174.
    doi: 10.3346/jkms.2024.39.e174. Vaccine Effectiveness Against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Reinfection by Type and Frequency of Vaccine: A Community-Based Case-Control Study

    Hyerin Gim 1 , Haesook Seo 1 , Byung Chul Chun 2 3



    AffiliationsAbstract

    Background: Although guidelines recommend vaccination for individuals who have recovered from the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection to prevent reinfection, comprehensive evaluation studies are limited. We aimed to evaluate vaccine effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 reinfection according to the primary vaccination status, booster vaccination status, and vaccination methods used.
    Methods: This population-based case-control study enrolled all SARS-CoV-2-infected patients in Seoul between January 2020 and February 2022. Individuals were categorized into case (reinfection) and control (no reinfection) groups. Data were analyzed using conditional logistic regression after adjusting for underlying comorbidities using multiple regression.
    Results: The case group included 7,678 participants (average age: 32.26 years). In all vaccinated individuals, patients who received the first and second booster doses showed reduced reinfection rates compared with individuals who received basic vaccination (odds ratio [OR] = 0.605, P < 0.001 and OR = 0.002, P < 0.001). Patients who received BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273, NVX-CoV2373 and heterologous vaccination showed reduced reinfection rates compared with unvaccinated individuals (OR = 0.546, P < 0.001; OR = 0.356, P < 0.001; and OR = 0.472, P < 0.001). However, the ChAdOx1-S or Ad26.COV2.S vaccination group showed a higher reinfection rate than the BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 vaccination group (OR = 4.419, P < 0.001).
    Conclusion: In SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals, completion of the basic vaccination series showed significant protection against reinfection compared with no vaccination. If the first or second booster vaccination was received, the protective effect against reinfection was higher than that of basic vaccination; when vaccinated with BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 only or heterologous vaccination, the protective effect was higher than that of ChAdOx1-S or Ad26.COV2.S vaccination only.

    Keywords: Coronavirus Disease 2019; Reinfection; Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2; Vaccine Effectiveness.

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