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  • pubmed before 1919

    old pubmed articles with keyword influenza.
    Most of these are available as scans from old journals.
    They also offer .pdf s made from it


    ##59369. Prov Med Surg J. 1844 Aug 21;8(21):315-318.
    A Sketch of the Late Influenza as It Appeared in the Agricultural Districts of
    Cheshire.
    Hall CR.
    PMCID: PMC2558472---PMID: 20793522 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59368. Prov Med Surg J. 1848 Jul 26;12(15):419.
    Influenza.
    [No authors listed]
    PMCID: PMC2490656---PMID: 20794492 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59367. Br Med J. 1870 Jul 23;2(499):81-82.
    Clinical Lecture on a Case of Influenza: With Persistent Headache and Jarring
    Sensation; Failure of Tonics and Stimulants; Success of Bromide of Potassium and
    a Sternutatory.
    Jones CH.
    PMCID: PMC2261255---PMID: 20745929 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59366. Br Med J. 1890 Apr 12;1(1528):834-835.
    The Epidemic of Influenza in the Rural Sanitary District of Melton Mowbray.
    Tibbles W.
    PMCID: PMC2207488---PMID: 20753010 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59365. Br Med J. 1890 Feb 1;1(1518):228-230.
    Report of an Epidemic of Influenza (140 Cases) Occurring at the Royal Asylum,
    Morningside, Edinburgh.
    Robertson GM, Elkins FA.
    PMCID: PMC2207224---PMID: 20752932 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59364. Br Med J. 1890 Feb 15;1(1520):354-355.
    Influenza and Pneumonia.
    Haddon J.
    PMCID: PMC2207218---PMID: 20752952 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59363. Br Med J. 1890 Feb 22;1(1521):417-418.
    An Epidemic of Influenza in a Prison.
    Quinton RF.
    PMCID: PMC2207391---PMID: 20752961 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59362. Br Med J. 1890 Feb 22;1(1521):418.
    Notes on an Outbreak of Influenza at King Edward's Schools for Girls.
    Bristowe HC.
    PMCID: PMC2207392---PMID: 20752962 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59361. Science. 1890 Feb 7;15(366):99.
    Influenza.
    Collins MC.---PMID: 17782690 [PubMed]

    ##59360. Science. 1890 Jan 3;15(361):8.
    INFLUENZA.
    [No authors listed]---PMID: 17794131 [PubMed]

    ##59359. Br Med J. 1890 Mar 15;1(1524):599-600.
    Notes on 290 Cases of Influenza.
    Barnes EC.
    PMCID: PMC2207573---PMID: 20752982 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59358. Br Med J. 1890 Mar 15;1(1524):600.
    The Influenza Epidemic at the "Cape"
    Scholtz WC.
    PMCID: PMC2207554---PMID: 20752983 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59357. Br Med J. 1891 Apr 18;1(1581):848.
    Vitiligo as a Sequela of Influenza and Erysipelas.
    Sympson EM.
    PMCID: PMC2272949---PMID: 20753304 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59356. Br Med J. 1891 Aug 8;2(1597):308-310.
    Influenza in 1891.
    Eade P.
    PMCID: PMC2273623---PMID: 20753391 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59355. Br Med J. 1891 Jul 4;2(1592):6-8.
    Cerebral Suppuration following on Influenza.
    Bristowe JS.
    PMCID: PMC2272901---PMID: 20753361 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59354. Br Med J. 1891 Jun 13;1(1589):1273-1275.
    The Complications and Sequelae of Influenza.
    Nicholson F.
    PMCID: PMC2273203---PMID: 20753340 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59353. Br Med J. 1891 Jun 13;1(1589):1275-1276.
    Cases of Influenza with Severe Abdominal Pain and Collapse.
    Simon RM.
    PMCID: PMC2273208---PMID: 20753341 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59352. Br Med J. 1891 Jun 13;1(1589):1276.
    Influenza in North Lincolnshire.
    Eminson TB.
    PMCID: PMC2273200---PMID: 20753342 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59351. Science. 1892 Apr 1;19(478):193-4.
    The Bacillus of Influenza.
    Nuttall GH.---PMID: 17748207 [PubMed]

    ##59350. Br Med J. 1892 Dec 31;2(1670):1426-1428.
    On PERFORATION of the MASTOID PROCESS in CASES of ACUTE OTITIS MEDIA due to
    INFLUENZA.
    Politzer A.
    PMCID: PMC2421680---PMID: 20753979 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59349. Science. 1892 Feb 12;19(471):90.
    LATEST DETAILS CONCERNING THE GERMS OF INFLUENZA.
    Macdonald A.---PMID: 17729739 [PubMed]

    ##59348. Br Med J. 1892 Feb 13;1(1624):355-357.
    The Influenza Epidemic.
    [No authors listed]
    PMCID: PMC2419593---PMID: 20753555 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59347. Science. 1892 Feb 19;19(472):100.
    CONFIRMATION OF THE DISCOVERY OF THE INFLUENZA BACILLUS.
    Macdonald A.---PMID: 17745434 [PubMed]

    ##59346. Br Med J. 1892 Feb 20;1(1625):406-409.
    The Influenza Epidemic.
    [No authors listed]
    PMCID: PMC2419811---PMID: 20753564 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59345. Science. 1892 Feb 26;19(473):122-3.
    FUTHER CONFIRMATION OF THE DISCOVERY OF THE INFLUENZA BACILLUS.
    Macdonald A.---PMID: 17808550 [PubMed]

    ##59344. Br Med J. 1892 Feb 27;1(1626):453-454.
    The Influenza Epidemic.
    [No authors listed]
    PMCID: PMC2419836---PMID: 20753575 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59343. Br Med J. 1892 Feb 6;1(1623):287-290.
    The Influenza Epidemic.
    [No authors listed]
    PMCID: PMC2419679---PMID: 20753539 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59342. Br Med J. 1892 Feb 6;1(1623):299.
    Influenza Infectious and Dangerous, but not to be Legally Dealt with.
    [No authors listed]
    PMCID: PMC2419688---PMID: 20753541 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59341. Br Med J. 1892 Feb 6;1(1623):299.
    The Official Influenza Inquiry.
    [No authors listed]
    PMCID: PMC2419699---PMID: 20753542 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59340. Br Med J. 1892 Jan 16;1(1620):128.
    I.-Preliminary Communication on the Exciting causes of Influenza.
    Pfeiffer R.
    PMCID: PMC2419508---PMID: 20753501 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59339. Br Med J. 1892 Jan 16;1(1620):128.
    II.-On the Influenza Bacillus and the Mode of Cultivating It.
    Kitasato S.
    PMCID: PMC2419539---PMID: 20753502 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59338. Br Med J. 1892 Jan 16;1(1620):129.
    III.-On a Micro-Organism in the Blood of Influenza Patients.
    Canon P.
    PMCID: PMC2419522---PMID: 20753504 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59337. Br Med J. 1892 Jan 23;1(1621):167-170.
    A Study of Influenza; and the Laws of England Concerning Infectious Diseases.
    Sisley R.
    PMCID: PMC2419602---PMID: 20753512 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59336. Br Med J. 1892 Jan 23;1(1621):170-171.
    Some Remarks on the Influenza Bacillus.
    Klein E.
    PMCID: PMC2419624---PMID: 20753513 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59335. Br Med J. 1892 Jan 23;1(1621):171.
    Benzol in the Treatment of Influenza and its Complications-Pneumonia, Etc.
    Robertson W.
    PMCID: PMC2419641---PMID: 20753514 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59334. Br Med J. 1892 Jan 23;1(1621):171-172.
    On the Treatment of Influenza.
    Simson FT.
    PMCID: PMC2419640---PMID: 20753515 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59333. Br Med J. 1892 Jan 23;1(1621):190-191.
    Statistics of the Influenza Epidemic.
    [No authors listed]
    PMCID: PMC2419642---PMID: 20753520 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59332. Br Med J. 1892 Jan 30;1(1622):243-250.
    The Influenza Epidemic.
    [No authors listed]
    PMCID: PMC2419644---PMID: 20753531 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59331. Br Med J. 1892 Jan 9;1(1619):77-78.
    Influenza.
    [No authors listed]
    PMCID: PMC2419495---PMID: 20753487 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59330. Br Med J. 1892 Mar 5;1(1627):508-510.
    The Influenza Epidemic.
    [No authors listed]
    PMCID: PMC2419759---PMID: 20753581 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59329. Br Med J. 1892 May 14;1(1637):1016-1017.
    Influenza: Notes on a Recent Epidemic at James Murray's Royal Asylum, Perth.
    Hay F.
    PMCID: PMC2420236---PMID: 20753691 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59328. Br Med J. 1892 May 21;1(1638):1072-1073.
    Neuralgia of the Heart, after Influenza, with a Fatal Case.
    Thomson C.
    PMCID: PMC2420290---PMID: 20753702 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59327. Br Med J. 1893 Apr 15;1(1685):791-792.
    Vesicular Eruption on the Palate: A Sign of Influenza(?).
    Shelly CE.
    PMCID: PMC2402994---PMID: 20754164 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59326. Br Med J. 1893 Aug 26;2(1704):488.
    The Influenza Epidemic : Report of the Medical Department of the Local Government
    Board.
    [No authors listed]
    PMCID: PMC2422072---PMID: 20754420 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59325. Br Med J. 1893 May 27;1(1691):1108-1109.
    A Localised Epidemic of Influenza Fatal from Hyperpyrexia.
    Jones H.
    PMCID: PMC2403222---PMID: 20754239 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59324. Med Chir Trans. 1894;77:287-304.
    A Review of Cases manifesting Pain at the Heart or Morbid Acceleration of the
    Heart's Contraction (Tachycardia) subsequently to Influenza.
    Sansom AE.
    PMCID: PMC2036309---PMID: 20896854 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59323. Br Med J. 1894 Apr 21;1(1738):846-848.
    On Influenza, 1893-94.
    Eade P.
    PMCID: PMC2404144---PMID: 20754755 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59322. Br Med J. 1894 Feb 17;1(1729):375.
    The Action of Antiseptics on the Influenza Bacillus.
    [No authors listed]
    PMCID: PMC2403437---PMID: 20754673 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59321. Br Med J. 1894 Feb 3;1(1727):237.
    Acute Inflammation of the Left Antrum of Highmore after Influenza: A Personal
    Observation.
    Semon F.
    PMCID: PMC2403900---PMID: 20754648 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59320. Br Med J. 1894 Jan 13;1(1724):77.
    The Medical Assurance Society and Influenza.
    [No authors listed]
    PMCID: PMC2403774---PMID: 20754614 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59319. Br Med J. 1894 Jun 23;1(1747):1369-1370.
    Epidemic Influenza in Egypt.
    [No authors listed]
    PMCID: PMC2404268---PMID: 20754912 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59318. Br Med J. 1894 Mar 17;1(1733):599-600.
    Epidemic Influenza in Holland.
    [No authors listed]
    PMCID: PMC2404065---PMID: 20754720 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59317. Br Med J. 1894 May 19;1(1742):1074-1075.
    Cardiac Failure in Influenza.
    Caw JM.
    PMCID: PMC2404988---PMID: 20754819 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59316. Br Med J. 1895 Apr 6;1(1788):751-752.
    The Prophylaxis of Influenza.
    Coghill JG.
    PMCID: PMC2509058---PMID: 20755426 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59315. Br Med J. 1895 Apr 6;1(1788):752.
    Influenza in an Infant, Complicated with Hyperpyrexia.
    McCaw J.
    PMCID: PMC2509039---PMID: 20755427 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59314. Br Med J. 1895 Jun 8;1(1797):1264.
    Influenza in Subjects who had Previously Sustained a Fracture of the Skull.
    Jennings PP.
    PMCID: PMC2510101---PMID: 20755580 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59313. Br Med J. 1895 May 4;1(1792):974.
    Sulphide of Calcium as a Prophylactic of Influenza.
    Green WE.
    PMCID: PMC2509683---PMID: 20755499 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59312. Br Med J. 1895 Nov 16;2(1820):1256.
    The Threatening Epidemic of Influenza.
    [No authors listed]
    PMCID: PMC2509250---PMID: 20755832 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59311. J Boston Soc Med Sci. 1897 Mar;1(10):10-12.
    "A Culture of the Bacillus of Influenza,"
    Wright JH.
    PMCID: PMC2121709---PMID: 19971112 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59310. Br Med J. 1898 Mar 12;1(1941):683-684.
    ISOLATION in INFLUENZA.
    White EW.
    PMCID: PMC2410934---PMID: 20757696 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59309. J Boston Soc Med Sci. 1899 May 9;3(10):274-289.
    THE INFLUENZA BACILLUS AND PNEUMONIA.
    Smith WH.
    PMCID: PMC2359576---PMID: 19971246 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59308. Br Med J. 1900 Oct 27;2(2078):1244-1247.
    Plague and Influenza: Mixed Infection in Houses.
    Hossack WC.
    PMCID: PMC2463671---PMID: 20759222 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59307. Public Health Pap Rep. 1901;27:458-60.
    Cultivation of the Bacillus Influenza.
    Gehrmann A.
    PMCID: PMC2329358---PMID: 19601020 [PubMed]

    ##59306. Public Health Pap Rep. 1901;27:458-60.
    Cultivation of the Bacillus Influenza.
    Gehrmann A.---PMID: 19678042 [PubMed]

    ##59305. Br Med J. 1901 Jan 12;1(2089):78-81.
    Influenza and the Nervous System.
    Carslaw J.
    PMCID: PMC2400068---PMID: 20759382 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59304. Br Med J. 1901 Jan 5;1(2088):7-10.
    An Address on Acute Dilatation of the Heart in Diphtheria, Influenza, and
    Rheumatic Fever: Delivered before the Manchester Medical Society.
    Lees DB.
    PMCID: PMC2400103---PMID: 20759375 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59303. Br Med J. 1901 Nov 9;2(2132):1407.
    Enteric Fever Commencing with and Complicated by an Attack of Influenza.
    Potter JC.
    PMCID: PMC2507060---PMID: 20759876 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59302. Br Med J. 1902 Dec 20;2(2190):1896-1897.
    Unrecognized Influenza.
    Washbourn JW, Eyre JW.
    PMCID: PMC2401927---PMID: 20760592 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59301. Br Med J. 1905 Aug 26;2(2330):421-427.
    Remarks ON THE CLINICAL AND BACTERIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF AN EPIDEMIC SIMULATING
    INFLUENZA, WHICH HAS RECENTLY OCCURRED IN THE EAST HERTS DISTRICT.
    Dunn RA, Gordon MH.
    PMCID: PMC2321116---PMID: 20762250 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59300. Br Med J. 1905 May 6;1(2314):977-980.
    Introduction TO A DISCUSSION ON INFLUENZA: At the Hunterian Society.
    Allbutt TC.
    PMCID: PMC2320071---PMID: 20762083 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59299. Br Med J. 1905 May 6;1(2314):980-982.
    THE EPIDEMIOLOGY OF INFLUENZA.
    Parsons HF.
    PMCID: PMC2320093---PMID: 20762084 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59298. Br Med J. 1905 Nov 4;2(2340):1171-1173.
    NOTES OF AN EPIDEMIC OF INFLUENZA OCCURRING IN THE MIDLOTHIAN AND PEEBLES ASYLUM.
    Sturrock JP.
    PMCID: PMC2322680---PMID: 20762358 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59297. Med Chir Trans. 1906;89:333-354.7.
    Influenzal Endocarditis: With an Account of Two Cases in which the Influenza
    Bacillus was repeatedly Cultivated from the Blood during Life.
    Horder TJ.
    PMCID: PMC2038226---PMID: 20897056 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59296. J Exp Med. 1906 Dec 21;8(6):681-91.
    THE INFLUENZA BACILLUS IN INFLAMMATIONS OF THE RESPIRATORY TRACT IN INFANTS.
    Wollstein M.
    Laboratory of the Babies' Hospital, New York City.
    PMCID: PMC2124643---PMID: 19867065 [PubMed]

    ##59295. Br Med J. 1907 Mar 2;1(2409):489.
    INFLUENZA COMMENCING WITH SUDDEN UNCONSCIOUSNESS, AND EXCESSIVE DYSPNOEA.
    Harris W.
    PMCID: PMC2356818---PMID: 20763101 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59294. Br Med J. 1908 Dec 12;2(2502):1744.
    AN EPIDEMIC OF INFLUENZA CHARACTERIZED BY OEDEMA OF THE EYELIDS.
    Spriggs NI.
    PMCID: PMC2438054---PMID: 20764187 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59293. Br Med J. 1908 Feb 29;1(2461):519-521.
    THE EPIDEMIC OF INFLUENZA.
    [No authors listed]
    PMCID: PMC2436059---PMID: 20763716 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59292. J Med Res. 1908 Oct;19(2):295-9.
    The Etiology of an Epidemic of Influenza. Relation of the Influenza Bacillus and
    other Organisms to the recent Epidemic in Boston (1907-08). Comparison with an
    inter-epidemic Period (1902-04).
    Lord FT.
    PMCID: PMC2099350---PMID: 19971862 [PubMed]

    ##59291. Cal State J Med. 1908 Sep;6(9):308-12.
    Clinical Features of Influenza Since the Pandemic of 1889-1890.
    Moffitt HC.
    PMCID: PMC1652585---PMID: 18734445 [PubMed]

    ##59290. J Exp Med. 1909 Jan 9;11(1):41-54.
    THE BORDET-GENGOU BACILLUS OF PERTUSSIS.
    Wollstein M.
    Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, New York.
    The bacillus of Bordet and Gengou is present in the sputum in early cases of
    pertussis, and in the lungs at autopsy in fatal cases of the disease. After the
    second week it is not present in the sputum in sufficiently large numbers to be
    readily isolated. The influenza bacillus is found at as early a stage of
    pertussis as is the Bordet-Gengou bacillus, and it persists in the sputum for a
    longer time. The agglutinins in the blood of pertussis patients are not more
    regular and not always higher for the Bordet-Gengou bacillus than for B.
    influenzae. The two organisms are culturally distinct and their action on
    laboratory animals different. Complement deviation tests with the serum of
    immunized rabbits show a further difference in the immune bodies produced by the
    two varieties of bacilli. The negative results of the complement deviation tests
    with the patients' serum in this study, compared with the positive results of
    similar tests made by Bordet and Gengou, I am not able to account for. This study
    has contributed support to the view that the Bordet-Gengou bacillus is the
    possible cause of pertussis, but it has not produced any distinctively new
    evidence of this relationship beyond the proof of the wide dissemination of the
    peculiar bacillus in nature and its occurrence in pertussis. A study of bronchial
    secretions in other acute diseases of the respiratory tract for the bacillus has
    not yet been extensively made and is called for. I shall hope to report on this
    phase of the subject at another time.
    PMCID: PMC2124697---PMID: 19867243 [PubMed]

    ##59289. J Exp Med. 1911 Jul 1;14(1):73-82.
    SERUM TREATMENT OF INFLUENZAL MENINGITIS.
    Wollstein M.
    Laboratories of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, New York.
    The injection of virulent cultures of Bacillus influenzae into the subdural space
    of several species of lower monkeys is followed by the development of an acute
    inflammation of the meninges, corresponding in clinical, bacteriological, and
    pathological effects with influenzal cerebrospinal meningitis in human beings.
    Experimental influenzal meningitis in the monkey is a lethal disease which
    terminates fatally in from thirty-six hours to four days after the inoculation.
    The injected influenza bacilli produce their effects through multiplication in
    the course of which they penetrate from the subdural space into the general blood
    current, from which they may be recovered during life and at autopsy, as is also
    true of the spontaneous form of influenzal meningitis in man. By repeated
    injection, over a period of many months, of living virulent cultures of Bacillus
    influenzae into the goat, an immune serum possessing moderate agglutinating and
    high opsonic power may be produced, which is capable, when injected into the
    subdural space, of arresting the progress of an experimental influenzal
    meningitis, and of bringing about recovery in monkeys thus affected. As a result
    of the serum injections, the influenza bacilli in the meninges are more freely
    englobed by phagocytes, their number is reduced, their capacity of growth
    diminished, and the eruption into the blood arrested. Along with these effects
    go, hand in hand, cessation of the local inflammatory process and progressive
    amelioration of the symptoms of illness, to be followed usually by rapid
    restoration of health. In view of the highly fatal character of influenzal
    meningitis in human beings, the employment of an immune serum by subdural
    injection is recommended. Undoubtedly it will be necessary to apply the serum
    early and by repeated injections, by means of lumbar puncture, to secure
    beneficial results. The early application will, in turn, be dependent upon prompt
    bacteriological diagnosis, which can be made, as a rule, by the immediate
    microscopical examination of the cerebrospinal fluid without the employment of
    cultural methods. When possible, the microscopical diagnosis should be confirmed
    by cultural tests.
    PMCID: PMC2124902---PMID: 19867453 [PubMed]

    ##59288. Proc R Soc Med. 1912;5(Laryngol Sect):101-2.
    Double Acute Frontal Sinusitis following Influenza.
    Davis HJ.
    PMCID: PMC2005720---PMID: 19975881 [PubMed]

    ##59287. J Exp Med. 1912 Aug 1;16(2):126-38.
    EXPERIMENTAL BRONCHOPNEUMONIA BY INTRABRONCHIAL INSUFFLATION.
    Wollstein M, Meltzer SJ.
    Laboratories of The Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, New York.
    When intrabronchial insufflation of pure cultures of the streptococcus or of the
    influenza bacillus is properly carried out, it produces without fail a pneumonic
    lesion. This lesion is similar in its nature to the one known in human pathology
    as bronchopneumonia, and differs materially from the pneumonic lesion produced
    experimentally by the intrabronchial insufflation of pure cultures of the
    pneumococcus. Considering the fact that none of the dogs used in the experiments
    with the pneumococcus and none of those used in the present investigation were
    selected or prepared in any way, the conclusion seems to be unavoidable that the
    proper invasion of the microörganism is the determining factor in the development
    of pneumonia, the condition of the animal being only a minor element in this
    regard. Furthermore, since different organisms introduced in the same way and
    under conditions which are apparently the same produced distinctly different
    pneumonic lesions in animals of the same species, the further conclusion presents
    itself that the different types of pneumonia are produced by specifically
    different bacteria. However, further investigation may show that the differences
    in the nature of the lesion are due rather to the degree of virulence of the
    causative microörganism than to differences in the species; that is, that
    different lesions may possibly be produced by organisms of the same species,
    provided they possess different degrees of virulence. Further experimentation may
    also show that the condition of the animal and of the affected organ which, in
    the onset and development of the pneumonic disease, is, perhaps, unimportant, may
    be the leading factor in determining the course and outcome of the disease.
    PMCID: PMC2125244---PMID: 19867558 [PubMed]

    ##59286. Can Med Assoc J. 1913 Jul;3(7):572-4.
    SOME REMARKS ON ENDOCARDITIS IN INFLUENZA: REPORT OF A CASE.
    McPhedran JH.
    PMCID: PMC1579812---PMID: 20310401 [PubMed]

    ##59285. Can Med Assoc J. 1915 Dec;5(12):1076-80.
    Influenza Meningitis with Report of Two Cases.
    Brown A.
    PMCID: PMC1584471---PMID: 20310722 [PubMed]

    ##59284. J Exp Med. 1915 Oct 1;22(4):445-56.
    AN IMMUNOLOGICAL STUDY OF BACILLUS INFLUENZAE.
    Wollstein M.
    Laboratories of The Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research.
    Influenza bacilli isolated from various pathological processes in man differ
    widely in pathogenic power for animals, especially rabbits. While the cultures
    derived from the leptomeninges and blood, and rarely from the pneumonic lung are
    pathogenic, those generally derived from the respiratory tract exhibit little or
    no virulence for rabbits. The two types of cultures as indicated by virulence for
    animals do not differ in kind, but only in degree, in relation to the serological
    tests of agglutination, complement deviation, and opsonification. The two types
    of cultures do, however, differ with respect to their ability to undergo
    autolysis. While the virulent cultures autolyze almost completely, yielding a
    turbid supernatant fluid and little sediment, the non-virulent cultures give rise
    to an abundant sediment and a clear supernatant fluid. The non-virulent cultures
    incite far less antibody production in rabbits. Hence, rabbits inoculated with
    non-virulent strains yield sera possessing low antibody content. Conversely,
    rabbits inoculated with virulent strains yield sera possessing a higher content
    of antibody. In keeping with and possibly because of the low antibody content of
    the sera of rabbits inoculated with the non-pathogenic strains, the rabbits so
    treated are not, as a rule, protected against subsequent inoculation with
    virulent strains. . Influenza bacilli therefore vary in pathogenic effect both
    for man and animals, but they are not distinguishable by means of serological
    reactions into different types. Apparently all influenza bacilli belong to one
    class or race irrespective of origin or virulence.
    PMCID: PMC2125355---PMID: 19867928 [PubMed]

    ##59283. J Exp Med. 1915 Oct 1;22(4):484-91.
    THE AGGLUTINATION OF BACTERIA IN VIVO.
    Bull CG.
    Laboratories of The Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research.
    1. Small quantities of antiserum bring about instantaneous agglutination of
    pneumococci in the circulation of the rabbit; the reaction is specific and occurs
    in every case in which sufficient serum is given to influence the course of the
    septicemia or to prolong the life of the animal. 2. The agglutinating titer of
    antipneurnococcus serum can be made considerably higher by adding only a small
    quantity of culture to the tests, thus making the test a finer differential. 3.
    Typhoid bacilli agglutinate spontaneously in the circulation of the normal
    rabbit; the reaction is positive in vivo even in cases in which undiluted serum
    gives a negative result in vitro; heating the bacilli to 80 degrees C. for thirty
    minutes renders them more agglutinable in vivo. 4. Dysentery bacilli of the Shiga
    type do not agglutinate in the blood stream of the normal rabbit, but a small
    quantity of antiserum injected into the circulation causes immediate
    agglutination; while all strains of the Flexner group undergo spontaneous
    agglutination. 5. Non-virulent influenza bacilli agglutinate spontaneously in the
    circulation of the normal rabbit; virulent strains remain in the blood unclumped.
    6. In all instances so far investigated of both passive and natural immunity,
    agglutination of the bacteria within the blood of the infected animal was
    followed by a rapid removal of the bacteria from the circulation, and by
    phagocytosis and destruction of the agglutinated bacteria in the capillary
    systems of the viscera; while those bacteria which are not agglutinated remain in
    the circulation and produce a progressive septicemia. 7. Hence the agglutinins
    seem to play the decisive part in at least certain instances of bacterial
    infections.
    PMCID: PMC2125357---PMID: 19867932 [PubMed]

    ##59282. Am J Public Health (N Y). 1916 Apr;6(4):307-19.
    INFLUENZA AND PNEUMONIA.
    [No authors listed]
    This symposium summarizes the opinions of several widely known health workers on
    the modes of infection, spread, prevalence and nature, epidemiology, and
    legislative and executive management of influenza and pneumonia-the two diseases
    which so greatly increased our morbidity rates during the winter season.
    PMCID: PMC1286823---PMID: 18009431 [PubMed]

    ##59281. Br Med J. 1918 Aug 3;2(3005):111-112.
    THE INFLUENZA EPIDEMIC IN A CAMP.
    Averill C, Young G, Griffiths J.
    PMCID: PMC2341612---PMID: 20769125 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59280. Can Med Assoc J. 1918 Dec;8(12):1084-6.
    The control of influenza in Ontario.
    McCullough JW.
    PMCID: PMC1585472---PMID: 20311196 [PubMed]

    ##59279. Can Med Assoc J. 1918 Dec;8(12):1087-92.
    The epidemic of influenza.
    Boucher S.
    PMCID: PMC1585484---PMID: 20311197 [PubMed]

    ##59278. Cal State J Med. 1918 Dec;16(12):531-2.
    INFLUENZA PREVENTION.
    Davis EP.
    PMCID: PMC1593650---PMID: 18737777 [PubMed]

    ##59277. Br Med J. 1918 Dec 14;2(3024):645-646.
    A FILTRABLE VIRUS AS THE CAUSE OF THE EARLY STAGE OF THE PRESENT EPIDEMIC OF
    INFLUENZA: (A Preliminary Note.).
    Gibson HG, Connor JI.
    PMCID: PMC2342374---PMID: 20769290 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59276. Br Med J. 1918 Dec 21;2(3025):680-681.
    INFLUENZA: ITS CAUSE AND PREVENTION.
    Robertson WF.
    PMCID: PMC2342393---PMID: 20769300 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59275. J Natl Med Assoc. 1918 Jul;10(3):126-152.
    The Influenza Epidemic.
    [No authors listed]
    PMCID: PMC2621721---PMID: 20891681 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59274. Br Med J. 1918 Jul 27;2(3004):82-85.
    A REPORT ON THE "INFLUENZA" EPIDEMIC OF 1918.
    Gotch OH, Whittingham HE.
    PMCID: PMC2341541---PMID: 20769117 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59273. Cal State J Med. 1918 Nov;16(11):479-81.
    INFLUENZA.
    [No authors listed]
    PMCID: PMC1593574---PMID: 18737743 [PubMed]

    ##59272. Am J Public Health (N Y). 1918 Nov;8(11):845-8.
    THE 1890 EPIDEMIC OF INFLUENZA IN CHICAGO AND ITS INFLUENCE ON MORTALITY, 1890 TO
    1893 INCLUSIVE.
    Evans WA, Heckard MO.
    PMCID: PMC1362262---PMID: 18009984 [PubMed]

    ##59271. Am J Public Health (N Y). 1918 Nov;8(11):849-56.
    PRELIMINARY REPORT ON THE INFLUENZA EPIDEMIC IN CHICAGO.
    Robertson JD, Koehler G.
    PMCID: PMC1362263---PMID: 18009985 [PubMed]

    ##59270. Am J Public Health (N Y). 1918 Nov;8(11):857-9.
    PROGRESS OF THE INFLUENZA EPIDEMIC IN THE LARGER CITIES OF THE UNITED STATES.
    [No authors listed]
    PMCID: PMC1362264---PMID: 18009986 [PubMed]

    ##59269. Am J Public Health (N Y). 1918 Nov;8(11):861.
    INFLUENZA AND THE COMING ANNUAL MEETING.
    [No authors listed]
    PMCID: PMC1362266---PMID: 18009989 [PubMed]

    ##59268. Br Med J. 1918 Nov 16;2(3020):546.
    PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF INFLUENZA.
    Royal College of Physicians, London..
    PMCID: PMC2341999---PMID: 20769260 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59267. Br Med J. 1918 Nov 2;2(3018):488.
    INCUBATION PERIOD OF INFLUENZA.
    Macdonald P, Lyth JC.
    PMCID: PMC2342083---PMID: 20769243 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59266. Br Med J. 1918 Nov 23;2(3021):563-566.
    THE EPIDEMIOLOGY OF INFLUENZA.
    Greenwood M.
    PMCID: PMC2342100---PMID: 20769264 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59265. Br Med J. 1918 Nov 23;2(3021):566-568.
    Preliminary Report ON THE INFLUENZA EPIDEMIC AT BRAMSHOTT IN SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER,
    1918.
    Cole CE.
    PMCID: PMC2342094---PMID: 20769265 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59264. Science. 1918 Nov 8;48(1245):451-6.
    THE INFLUENZA PNEUMONIA PANDEMIC IN THE AMERICAN ARMY CAMPS DURING SEPTEMBER AND
    OCTOBER. 1918.
    Soper GA.---PMID: 17755433 [PubMed]

    ##59263. J Natl Med Assoc. 1918 Oct;10(4):184.
    Epidemic Influenza and the Negro Physician.
    Turner JP.
    PMCID: PMC2621924---PMID: 20891694 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59262. Am J Public Health (N Y). 1918 Oct;8(10):741-4.
    THE USE OF CONVALESCENT HUMAN SERUM IN INFLUENZA PNEUMONIA-A PRELIMINARY REPORT.
    McGuire LW, Redden WR.
    PMCID: PMC1362336---PMID: 18009960 [PubMed]

    ##59261. Am J Public Health (N Y). 1918 Oct;8(10):744-6.
    CENTRALIZED HEALTH AND RELIEF AGENCIES IN AN INFLUENZA EPIDEMIC.
    Kelley ER, Carey BW.
    PMCID: PMC1362337---PMID: 18009961 [PubMed]

    ##59260. Am J Public Health (N Y). 1918 Oct;8(10):746-50.
    THE OPEN AIR TREATMENT OF INFLUENZA.
    Brooks WA.
    PMCID: PMC1362338---PMID: 18009962 [PubMed]

    ##59259. Am J Public Health (N Y). 1918 Oct;8(10):751-4.
    THE EPIDEMIOLOGY AND BACTERIOLOGY OF INFLUENZA.
    Darling CA.
    PMCID: PMC1362339---PMID: 18009963 [PubMed]

    ##59258. Am J Public Health (N Y). 1918 Oct;8(10):754-68.
    THE USE OF INFLUENZA VACCINE IN THE PRESENT EPIDEMIC.
    Leary T.
    PMCID: PMC1362340---PMID: 18009964 [PubMed]

    ##59257. Am J Public Health (N Y). 1918 Oct;8(10):787-8.
    WEAPONS AGAINST INFLUENZA.
    [No authors listed]
    PMCID: PMC1362349---PMID: 18009972 [PubMed]

    ##59256. Br Med J. 1918 Oct 26;2(3017):470.
    VACCINES FOR INFLUENZA.
    Leishman WB.
    PMCID: PMC2341943---PMID: 20769239 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59255. Proc R Soc Med. 1919;12(Gen Rep):1-18.
    Discussion on Influenza.
    [No authors listed]
    PMCID: PMC2067075---PMID: 19980402 [PubMed]

    ##59254. Proc R Soc Med. 1919;12(Gen Rep):19-21.
    Discussion on Influenza.
    Stevenson TH.
    PMCID: PMC2067094---PMID: 19980407 [PubMed]

    ##59253. Proc R Soc Med. 1919;12(Gen Rep):21-4.
    Discussion on Influenza.
    Greenwood M.
    PMCID: PMC2067093---PMID: 19980409 [PubMed]

    ##59252. Proc R Soc Med. 1919;12(Gen Rep):24-6.
    Discussion on Influenza.
    Hamer WH.
    PMCID: PMC2067083---PMID: 19980411 [PubMed]

    ##59251. Proc R Soc Med. 1919;12(Gen Rep):27-8.
    Discussion on Influenza.
    Soltau AB.
    PMCID: PMC2067081---PMID: 19980414 [PubMed]

    ##59250. Proc R Soc Med. 1919;12(Gen Rep):28-64.
    Discussion on Influenza.
    Thayer WS.
    PMCID: PMC2067096---PMID: 19980416 [PubMed]

    ##59249. Proc R Soc Med. 1919;12(Gen Rep):29-30.
    Discussion on Influenza.
    Stock.
    PMCID: PMC2067076---PMID: 19980417 [PubMed]

    ##59248. Proc R Soc Med. 1919;12(Gen Rep):30-84.
    Discussion on Influenza.
    Bassett-Smith PW.
    PMCID: PMC2067068---PMID: 19980418 [PubMed]

    ##59247. Proc R Soc Med. 1919;12(Gen Rep):32-4.
    Discussion on Influenza.
    Goadby K.
    PMCID: PMC2067097---PMID: 19980421 [PubMed]

    ##59246. Proc R Soc Med. 1919;12(Gen Rep):34-6.
    Discussion on Influenza: (Abstract).
    Whittingham HE.
    PMCID: PMC2067089---PMID: 19980423 [PubMed]

    ##59245. Proc R Soc Med. 1919;12(Gen Rep):36-41.
    Discussion on Influenza.
    Little TR.
    PMCID: PMC2067067---PMID: 19980424 [PubMed]

    ##59244. Proc R Soc Med. 1919;12(Gen Rep):41-3.
    Discussion on Influenza.
    Hallows.
    PMCID: PMC2067090---PMID: 19980426 [PubMed]

    ##59243. Proc R Soc Med. 1919;12(Gen Rep):44.
    Discussion on Influenza.
    Lynch GR.
    PMCID: PMC2067072---PMID: 19980427 [PubMed]

    ##59242. Proc R Soc Med. 1919;12(Gen Rep):45-50.
    Discussion on Influenza.
    Malloch TA.
    PMCID: PMC2067095---PMID: 19980428 [PubMed]

    ##59241. Proc R Soc Med. 1919;12(Gen Rep):50-4.
    Discussion on Influenza.
    Hopkins JG.
    PMCID: PMC2067079---PMID: 19980429 [PubMed]

    ##59240. Proc R Soc Med. 1919;12(Gen Rep):55-7.
    Discussion on Influenza.
    Spilsbury BH.
    PMCID: PMC2067061---PMID: 19980430 [PubMed]

    ##59239. Proc R Soc Med. 1919;12(Gen Rep):57-8.
    Discussion on Influenza.
    Graham.
    PMCID: PMC2067087---PMID: 19980431 [PubMed]

    ##59238. Proc R Soc Med. 1919;12(Gen Rep):59-61.
    Discussion on Influenza.
    Dawson B.
    PMCID: PMC2067066---PMID: 19980432 [PubMed]

    ##59237. Proc R Soc Med. 1919;12(Gen Rep):64-7.
    Discussion on Influenza.
    Longcope.
    PMCID: PMC2067080---PMID: 19980433 [PubMed]

    ##59236. Proc R Soc Med. 1919;12(Gen Rep):67.
    Discussion on Influenza.
    Tilley H.
    PMCID: PMC2067054---PMID: 19980434 [PubMed]

    ##59235. Proc R Soc Med. 1919;12(Gen Rep):67-70.
    Discussion on Influenza.
    Leslie RM.
    PMCID: PMC2067088---PMID: 19980435 [PubMed]

    ##59234. Proc R Soc Med. 1919;12(Gen Rep):70.
    Discussion on Influenza.
    Crookshank FG.
    PMCID: PMC2067086---PMID: 19980436 [PubMed]

    ##59233. Proc R Soc Med. 1919;12(Gen Rep):70-6.
    Discussion on Influenza.
    Meader FM.
    PMCID: PMC2067058---PMID: 19980437 [PubMed]

    ##59232. Proc R Soc Med. 1919;12(Gen Rep):76-90.
    Discussion on Influenza.
    Turner EB.
    PMCID: PMC2067091---PMID: 19980438 [PubMed]

    ##59231. Proc R Soc Med. 1919;12(Gen Rep):78-83.
    Discussion on Influenza.
    Dickson WE.
    PMCID: PMC2067063---PMID: 19980439 [PubMed]

    ##59230. Proc R Soc Med. 1919;12(Gen Rep):84.
    Discussion on Influenza.
    Rolleston H.
    PMCID: PMC2067070---PMID: 19980440 [PubMed]

    ##59229. Proc R Soc Med. 1919;12(Gen Rep):84-5.
    Discussion on Influenza.
    Pitt N.
    PMCID: PMC2067082---PMID: 19980441 [PubMed]

    ##59228. Proc R Soc Med. 1919;12(Gen Rep):85-6.
    Discussion on Influenza.
    Cole CE.
    PMCID: PMC2067060---PMID: 19980442 [PubMed]

    ##59227. Proc R Soc Med. 1919;12(Gen Rep):91.
    Discussion on Influenza.
    Abercrombie RG.
    PMCID: PMC2067071---PMID: 19980444 [PubMed]

    ##59226. Proc R Soc Med. 1919;12(Gen Rep):92-3.
    Discussion on Influenza.
    Nash JT.
    PMCID: PMC2067057---PMID: 19980445 [PubMed]

    ##59225. Proc R Soc Med. 1919;12(Gen Rep):93-7.
    Discussion on Influenza.
    Eyre J.
    PMCID: PMC2067069---PMID: 19980446 [PubMed]

    ##59224. Proc R Soc Med. 1919;12(Gen Rep):97-102.
    Discussion on Influenza.
    Abrahams A.
    PMCID: PMC2067098---PMID: 19980447 [PubMed]

    ##59223. Proc R Soc Med. 1919;12(Med Sect):49-74.
    Further Notes on the Epidemic (Influenza) with Special Reference to Pneumonia, in
    Macedonia.
    Burnford J.
    PMCID: PMC2066570---PMID: 19980571 [PubMed]

    ##59222. J Natl Med Assoc. 1919 Apr;11(2):38-39.
    Clinical Notes on the Influenza Epidemic.
    France JJ.
    PMCID: PMC2622097---PMID: 20891716 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59221. J Natl Med Assoc. 1919 Apr;11(2):39-40.
    Historical Notes on Influenza.
    Dickerson WP.
    PMCID: PMC2622076---PMID: 20891717 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59220. J Natl Med Assoc. 1919 Apr;11(2):74-75.
    Influenza and Racial Susceptibility.
    [No authors listed]
    PMCID: PMC2622079---PMID: 20891723 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59219. Can Med Assoc J. 1919 Apr;9(4):351-4.
    Official Report on Influenza Epidemic, 1918.
    [No authors listed]
    PMCID: PMC1523623---PMID: 20311253 [PubMed]

    ##59218. Br Med J. 1919 Apr 19;1(3042):478-479.
    INFLUENZA AMONG POISON GAS WORKERS.
    Shufflebotham F.
    PMCID: PMC2341143---PMID: 20769443 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59217. Br Med J. 1919 Apr 19;1(3042):481-482.
    INUNCTION OF CREOSOTE IN PNEUMONIA AND INFLUENZA.
    Wells JE.
    PMCID: PMC2341133---PMID: 20769447 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59216. Can Med Assoc J. 1919 Aug;9(8):727-31.
    The Nervous Conditions Associated with Influenza.
    Howland GW.
    PMCID: PMC1523514---PMID: 20311299 [PubMed]

    ##59215. Am J Public Health (N Y). 1919 Aug;9(8):593-4.
    USE OF ANAEROBIC CULTURE METHODS IN THE STUDY OF INFLUENZA.
    Norton JF.
    In the search for the cause of such an important a disease as influenza, negative
    evidence with anaërobic cultures is of distinct scientific value. Professor
    Norton here presents conclusions derived from a careful series of investigations.
    PMCID: PMC1362561---PMID: 18010149 [PubMed]

    ##59214. J Exp Med. 1919 Aug 1;30(2):159-78.
    THE STREPTOCOCCI OF EQUINES.
    Jones FS.
    Department of Animal Pathology of The Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research,
    Princeton, N. J.
    The lower nasal mucosa and the pharynx of thirty eastern and twenty-three western
    horses have been examined for streptococci. Eight of the eastern horses carried
    non-hemolytic streptococci on the nasal mucosa. From the pharynx of six,
    non-hepiolytic streptococci were cultivated. The throats of eighteen contained
    strains of the hemolytic type. The nasal mucosa of the eastern horses failed to
    show hemolytic streptococci. Eight western horses carried non-hemolytic
    streptococci in the nasal passage; eight also harbored the hemolytic type.
    Twenty-two strains were isolated from the pharynx. Eleven were hemolytic. Among
    all the non-hemolytic nasal strains those capable of fermenting mannite
    predominate. Those of the non-hemolytic types from the pharynx of both classes of
    horses may or may not ferment lactose but all do ferment either raffinose or
    inulin. In no instance have any of the non-hemolytic types proved pathogenic for
    mice. The hemolytic strains from the nasal mucosa of the western horses were all
    of the Streptococcus py genes type. They were pathogenic for mice and rabbits.
    One strain from the pharynx of an eastern horse and eight from the throats of the
    western horses were of the same species. All the others corresponded closely in
    their fermentation reactions with non-hemolytic streptococci from the same
    region. The streptococci from pathological sources were all hemolytic. They have
    fallen into two groups; the larger group (Streptococcus pyogenes) produced acid
    in dextrose, lactose, saccharose, maltose, milk, and salicin but failed to change
    the reaction of broth containing raffinose, inulin, or mannite. The streptococci
    of the smaller group (Streptococcus equi) differ only in their inability to
    ferment lactose or acidulate milk. Both types are pathogenic for mice. Rabbits
    are usually more resistant. Streptococcus pyogenes has been isolated from
    eighteen of twenty-two cases of influenza, three of six cases of strangles, and
    from eight of nine abscesses. Streptococcus equi was observed in four horses
    suffering from influenza and five others affected with strangles. This species
    was also found in an abscess and associated with both rhinitis and pharyngitis.
    PMCID: PMC2126493---PMID: 19868351 [PubMed]

    ##59213. Br Med J. 1919 Aug 23;2(3060):233-236.
    A CRITICISM OF CERTAIN RECENT CLAIMS TO HAVE DISCOVERED AND CULTIVATED THE
    FILTER-PASSING VIRUS OF TRENCH FEVER AND OF INFLUENZA.
    Arkwright JA.
    PMCID: PMC2342434---PMID: 20769587 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59212. Br Med J. 1919 Aug 9;2(3058):167-169.
    NOTES ON THE INFLUENZA EPIDEMIC IN THE EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE.
    Benjafield JD.
    PMCID: PMC2342283---PMID: 20769574 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59211. Can Med Assoc J. 1919 Dec;9(12):1070-4.
    The Practical Aspects of Quarantine for Influenza.
    Whitelaw TH.
    PMCID: PMC1523739---PMID: 20311354 [PubMed]

    ##59210. Can Med Assoc J. 1919 Dec;9(12):1075-80.
    Treatment of Influenza.
    Wetmore FH.
    PMCID: PMC1523733---PMID: 20311355 [PubMed]

    ##59209. Am J Public Health (N Y). 1919 Dec;9(12):919-23.
    ADMINISTRATIVE MEASURES AGAINST INFLUENZA.
    Freeman AW.
    Science has not yet revealed any successful specific measures against influenza.
    Isolation and popular education are the only justifiable general methods known at
    present. Energies must be directed to preventing the complications rather than to
    preventing influenza. Research is needed and health officers can help by securing
    accurate records.
    PMCID: PMC1362653---PMID: 18010212 [PubMed]

    ##59208. Am J Public Health (N Y). 1919 Dec;9(12):924-9.
    AMERICAN RED CROSS HEALTH CRUSADE: AFTER EFFECTS INFLUENZA IN CINCINNATI.
    Peters WH.
    Dr. Peters draws attention to the fact that no big work has been generally done
    to relieve those debilitated by influenza. There is hardship and need and slow
    recovery. Cincinnati organized relief along these lines, the Red Cross and the
    Health Department working in coöperation. Organization and results are given in
    some detail.
    PMCID: PMC1362654---PMID: 18010213 [PubMed]

    ##59207. Am J Public Health (N Y). 1919 Dec;9(12):960-5.
    INFLUENZA OBSERVATIONS IN FRAMINGHAM, MASSACHUSETTS.
    Armstrong DB.
    Why did the husky succumb in the influenza-pneumonia epidemic, was arrested
    tuberculosis a protection, and what had the race factor to do with immunity?
    These are queries that Dr. Armstrong asks, and he has basis for his questionings
    in the observations of the Framingham survey. He gives health officers much food
    for thought.
    PMCID: PMC1362660---PMID: 18010219 [PubMed]

    ##59206. Br Med J. 1919 Dec 27;2(3078):845-846.
    The Relation of Pfeiffer's Bacillus to Influenza.
    Wyard S.
    PMCID: PMC2344070---PMID: 20769750 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59205. Can Med Assoc J. 1919 Feb;9(2):155-9.
    Clinical notes on the influenza epidemic occurring in the Quebec garrison.
    Robertson EA.
    PMCID: PMC1523654---PMID: 20311223 [PubMed]

    ##59204. Cal State J Med. 1919 Feb;17(2):37.
    INFLUENZA CONTROL.
    [No authors listed]
    PMCID: PMC1593690---PMID: 18737802 [PubMed]

    ##59203. Cal State J Med. 1919 Feb;17(2):40.
    SURE CURE FOR INFLUENZA.
    [No authors listed]
    PMCID: PMC1593674---PMID: 18737807 [PubMed]

    ##59202. Br Med J. 1919 Feb 1;1(3031):127-128.
    PRELIMINARY REPORT ON THE PRESENCE OF A "FILTER PASSING" VIRUS IN CERTAIN
    DISEASES: With Especial Reference to Trench Fever, Influenza, and Nephritis.
    Bradford JR, Bashford EF, Wilson JA.
    PMCID: PMC2340716---PMID: 20769352 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    ##59201. J Exp Med. 1919 Feb 28;29(3):259-66.
    THE OCCURRENCE OF BACILLUS INFLUENZAE IN THROATS AND SALIVA.
    Pritchett IW, Stillman EG.
    Hospital of The Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research.
    1. Oleate hemoglobin agar is a good selective culture medium for Bacillus
    influenzae. 2. Bacillus influenzae has been cultivated from the mouth of 93 per
    cent of cases of influenza and bronchopneumonia. 3. Bacillus influenzae was
    present at the time of this study in the mouths of 43 per cent of normal
    individuals. 4. The types of pneumococci found associated with the complicating
    bronchopneumonias of influenza are the types which are usually found in normal
    mouths.
    PMCID: PMC2126348---PMID: 19868317 [PubMed]
    I'm interested in expert panflu damage estimates
    my current links: [url]http://bit.ly/hFI7H[/url] ILI-charts: [url]http://bit.ly/CcRgT[/url]

  • #2
    Re: pubmed before 1919

    An extremely interesting collection of studies.

    Among the others, in several pre-virology era articles is cited the 'influenza bacillus' that in our time is also known with the name of ''Haemophilus Influenzae'', but during the flourishing bacteriology was suspected to be the causative agent of influenza.

    When filtration methods improved, and experimental infection of animals in laboratory was performed, scientists acknowledged that the pathogen should have been of submicroscopic size, namely an ultra-virus (now called simply virus).

    Comment


    • #3
      Re: pubmed before 1919

      I remember in that article from 1919 ("historical notes"),
      they clearly stated that it must be a virus, since HI was only
      found in <1&#37; of army-camps-samples


      http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/arti...6/?tool=pubmed
      http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/arti...622076/?page=1

      hmm, they don't say "virus", but I remember I found it somewhere in those old
      articles


      --------------------------------------------------------------------

      several papers from 1919 with virus-speculation
      before Shope found it in 1931 by examining pigs

      http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/arti...4/?tool=pubmed
      http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/arti...6/?tool=pubmed
      http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/arti...6/?tool=pubmed
      http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/arti...7/?tool=pubmed

      A CRITICISM OF CERTAIN RECENT CLAIMS TO HAVE DISCOVERED AND CULTIVATED
      THE FILTER-PASSING VIRUS OF TRENCH FEVER AND OF INFLUENZA
      J. A. Arkwright
      http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/arti...4/?tool=pubmed



      STUDIES ON IMMUNITY TO SWINE INFLUENZA.
      Shope RE.
      J Exp Med. 1932 Sep 30;56(4):575-85.PMID: 19870086 [PubMed]Free PMC ArticleFree textRelated

      SWINE INFLUENZA : III. FILTRATION EXPERIMENTS AND ETIOLOGY.
      Shope RE.
      J Exp Med. 1931 Jul 31;54(3):373-85.PMID: 19869924 [PubMed]Free PMC ArticleFree textRelated citations

      SWINE INFLUENZA : I. EXPERIMENTAL TRANSMISSION AND PATHOLOGY.
      Shope RE.
      J Exp Med. 1931 Jul 31;54(3):349-59.PMID: 19869922 [PubMed]Free PMC ArticleFree textRelated citations

      THE BLOOD IN HOG CHOLERA.
      Lewis PA, Shope RE.
      J Exp Med. 1929 Nov 30;50(6):719-37.PMID: 19869659 [PubMed]Free PMC ArticleFree textRelated citations

      THE RELATION OF BACTERIUM PNEUMOSINTES TO INFLUENZA: A STUDY WITH A STRAIN OF THE ORGANISM DERIVED FROM THE NASOPHARYNGEAL WASHINGS OF A CASE OF INFLUENZA.
      Hall MW.
      J Exp Med. 1926 Sep 30;44(4):539-51.PMID: 19869205 [PubMed]Free PMC ArticleFree textRelated

      AN ATTEMPT TO ISOLATE A FILTER-PASSING VIRUS IN EPIDEMIC INFLUENZA.
      Detweiler HK, Hodge WR.
      J Exp Med. 1924 Jan 1;39(1):43-50.PMID: 19868833 [PubMed]Free PMC ArticleFree textRelated citations

      A CRITICISM OF CERTAIN RECENT CLAIMS TO HAVE DISCOVERED AND CULTIVATED THE FILTER-PASSING VIRUS OF TRENCH FEVER AND OF INFLUENZA.
      Arkwright JA.
      Br Med J. 1919 Aug 23;2(3060):233-236. No abstract available. PMID: 20769587 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]Free PMC ArticleFree textRelated citations

      THE EXPERIMENTAL REPRODUCTION OF INFLUENZA, NEPHRITIS, AND ENCEPHALITIS: BY INOCULATING SUBCULTURES OF THE ISOLATED VIRUS.
      Bashford EF.
      Br Med J. 1919 May 17;1(3046):601-602. No abstract available. PMID: 20769477 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]Free PMC ArticleFree textRelated citations

      THE ETIOLOGY OF INFLUENZA: A Filtrable Virus as the Cause, with some Notes on the Culture of the Virus by Noguchi's Method.
      Gibson HG, Bowman FB, Connor JI.
      Br Med J. 1919 Mar 22;1(3038):331-335. No abstract available. PMID: 20769413 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]Free PMC ArticleFree textRelated citations

      PRELIMINARY REPORT ON THE PRESENCE OF A "FILTER PASSING" VIRUS IN CERTAIN DISEASES: With Especial Reference to Trench Fever, Influenza, and Nephritis.
      Bradford JR, Bashford EF, Wilson JA.
      Br Med J. 1919 Feb 1;1(3031):127-128. No abstract available. PMID: 20769352 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]Free PMC ArticleFree textRelated citations

      A FILTRABLE VIRUS AS THE CAUSE OF THE EARLY STAGE OF THE PRESENT EPIDEMIC OF INFLUENZA: (A Preliminary Note.).
      Gibson HG, Connor JI.
      Br Med J. 1918 Dec 14;2(3024):645-646. No abstract available. PMID: 20769290 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]Free PMC ArticleFree textRelated citations

      --------------------------------------------------------------
      http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/arti...456/pdf/43.pdf

      it would be interesting to have this commented by someone who has experience
      in working with influenza cultures in a modern lab.
      I'm interested in expert panflu damage estimates
      my current links: [url]http://bit.ly/hFI7H[/url] ILI-charts: [url]http://bit.ly/CcRgT[/url]

      Comment


      • #4
        Re: pubmed before 1919

        I remember reading studies where some of the doctors were pretty confident in their speculation of viruses being filter passers. Others noted that there was an absence of HI in some areas where flu was rampant and still seemed unconvinced it wasn't the cause.

        From: A CRITICISM OF CERTAIN RECENT CLAIMS TO HAVE DISCOVERED AND CULTIVATED
        THE FILTER-PASSING VIRUS OF TRENCH FEVER AND OF INFLUENZA
        J. A. Arkwright

        Arkwright disputes the findings of Bradford, Bashford and Captain Wilson and believed they were mislead in their researches due to:
        1. Isolation from other bacteriologists
        2. Placing undue reliance on the efficacy of filters and glycerin
        3. A misconception of the size of the bodies seen in their films
        4. Inadequate staining
        5. Insufficient use of subcultures on to ordinary media
        The salvage of human life ought to be placed above barter and exchange ~ Louis Harris, 1918

        Comment

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