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  • KEROSENE LANTERNS, LANTERN FUEL, WICKS AND PARTS

    I have dragged out of storage some ancient barn lanterns. Amongst them I found 2 old railroad lanterns. In the event of a long term power outage I will have to use these for lighting. I also purchased a couple of new ones from my neighbor's yard sale recently. Having never used a lantern, I searched the internet for information on their care and operation. I found some helpful sites today.

    Lantern Care & Terminology

    Cold-Blast
    Hot-Blast



    PRINCIPLES OF LANTERN CONSTRUCTION


    Most kerosene lanterns embody one of three distinct types of construction: Hot-Blast, Cold Blast, or Dead-Flame. Dietz makes all three types to fill every lighting requirement.

    Cold-Blast and Hot-Blast are tubular lanterns. In them, the kerosene vapor mixed with air, in proper ratio, composes the burning mixture. The burner acts as a carburetor to which the side tubes convey properly controlled air in regulated volume. Result: perfect combustion and bright, clean light. A cold-blast lantern, easily the most efficient of all, is constructed so that only fresh, cold air enters the tubes, while the spent air is diverted and expelled.

    Hot-blast lanterns permit a portion of spent air to recirculate through the tubes. (Cold-blast provides about twice the brightness of hot-blast.)

    Dead-flame lanterns take in fresh air through the baffles at bottom, expel spent air at top. Hot and cold-blast lanterns produce much more light than dead-flame type.

    HOW TO GET THE MOST FROM YOUR LANTERNS

    Correct maintenance of lanterns will provide lower lighting costs, brighter lighting, long time between fillings, longer lantern life, greater reliability and more certain protection of the public. Follow these simple suggestions...

    1. To Remove the Globe. On a Cold Blast lantern, grasp bail and lift ring (as shown.) Lift up on ring, tilt back globe, and allow it to go all the way down. If the globe has LOC-NOBs, rotate globe a quarter turn, and pull out from wire cross guards.

    2. To Remove Burner and Wick. Turn burner until ears are disengaged. Lift out burner. Keep wick between finger and edge of fuel compartment so that it is wiped dry of excess kerosene.

    3. To Trim Wick. Cut straight across with shears (for either charred portion of old wick or fuzzy portion of new one.) A straight wick will burn more evenly, and give better light.

    4. To Replace Burner and Wick. Put wick back into fuel compartment (or fount.) Lock burner back into place, making sure it is fitted into both grooves. (Use a piece of tape to make a leader to assist in changing the wick if necessary.)

    5. To Light. Push lift lever straight down. Light lantern. Set the flame a little lower than is desired for burning, since the flame will burn higher after the lantern reaches operating temperature. If lantern is to be used in freezing weather, light it outside to avoid breaking the globe.


    TROUBLE FREE OPERATION TIPS

    Everytime A Lantern Comes Off a Job:
    1. Inspect the globe for cracks or chips.
    2. Clean the lantern, check for damage.
    3. Clean the burner for even burning. Soak burner in white vinegar if necessary
    4. Brush char off wick and clean charcoal out of holes in burner around wick holder
    5. If lantern is out and there is still fuel in it - check wick length, replace if needed
    6. Always use 150 degree kerosene, or regular lamp oil for best results.
    7. Never use gasoline, paint thinner, Coleman fuel, or any other explosive oil with a wick.
    8. Avoid using colored or tinted oils as they will gum the wick.
    7. Paraffin oil should not be used with 7/8" or larger wick due to the difference in viscosity. (Paraffin burns with a 50% reduction in light output.)

    TO SEE THE DIAGRAMS AND THE ENTIRE ARTICLE, GO TO:
    http://www.lanternnet.com/lanterncare.htm

  • #2
    Re: KEROSENE LANTERNS, LANTERN FUEL, WICKS AND PARTS

    KEEP LAMP BURNER VENT HOLES CLEAN AND CLEAR



    The photograph at left shows the bottom of a duplex burner. Notice the small air vent above the top wick, designed to keep air pressure equal in the tank even with a solid fill plug. The vent hole must be keep clean and clear of obstruction. Click on the photo to enlarge it.

    The comments below are from Dick Stauffer, who has encyclopedic knowledge of lamps, is honest and a gentleman - my highest praise.


    "After some research, I find that all kerosene burners had some sort of vent system. The most common today on flat wick burners is the little tube that runs along the main wick tube. This allowed the vapor that builds up in the font as the lamp heats up to vent directly to the wick where is is burned. Others just have a hole that vents into the screened area of the burner. Central draft lamps evidently were vented by the spaces around the wick riser though Royals do have a small hole under the tab in the base for a direct vent. All these vent holes HAVE to be kept clean. I make a point now to go over the burners I use VERY carefully with the vent and air flow systems particularly in mind. I think it was fairly common for these holes to get plugged up by the gummy residue from the cheap kerosene."
    Dick Stauffer

    TO VIEW THE PHOTO, GO TO:

    http://www.milesstair.com/lamp_wicks...37;20THICKNESS


    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    KEROSENE LAMP TEST



    There has been much debate as to how much useable light is actually produced by various types of kerosene lamps. I don't have a lumen meter, so I decided to put my lamps to the test of a Weston Master V light meter, in a dark room, using #1 kero heating fuel (with a red dye) in all of them. Each lamp had the wick raised to produce the maximum light without sooting, and I held the light meter a foot away from each lamp. To make things fair, I averaged the results from at least 2 of each style of lamp or lantern, and I put a mirror or reflector behind the kerosene lamps, as the electric lamp used as a control had a reflector. I did not check the light output from my Aladdin lamps simply because prior experience has shown me that unpacking, lighting, then repacking the Aladdin's was sure to break an expensive mantle, so it wasn't worth it...sorry.


    60 watt electric 9.0
    100 watt electric 9.6
    Dietz (small) 7.5
    Lamplighter Farms 7.8
    Mason jar lamp 8.4
    Kosmos Consierge 8.8

    (1) The mason jar lamp was the real surprise of the bunch. They appear to have a better oxygen intake system than the Lamplighter oil lamp burner units, and produce enough light to read by! A BEST BUY!!!
    (I saw the Mason Jar lamp being sold last week either at K-Mart or Walmart... very inexpensive.)

    (2) The Kosmos lamps are cranky when burning kerosene and take awhile to react to changes in wick height, and the longer they burn the hotter the flame spreader gets, so they can be adjusted to produce more light after a half - hour or. The Kosmos lamps easily equal the effective output of a 60 watt electric light bulb after burning for awhile, and the light output is enough to read by.

    (3) The Kosmos lamps are NOT "cranky" if "Low Odor Mineral Spirits" are used for fuel, as the fuel is exceptionally clean burning. In fact, the wick will not even appear to have been used! The cause of the hard adjustment of a Kosmos #15 wick is because the wick gap is extremely thin, and the lack of a carbon buildup on the top of the wick eliminates the hard adjustment common when burning kerosene. And, the light output is much better when using Low Odor Mineral Spirits.

    http://www.endtimesreport.com/kero_lamp_test.html
    Last edited by Jonesie; August 4th, 2007, 09:47 AM.

    Comment


    • #3
      Re: KEROSENE LANTERNS, LANTERN FUEL, WICKS AND PARTS

      You might have a few old lanterns hanging in your garage or barn like I did. Here are pictures of some. They can all be cleaned up and used again, and parts are available in hardware stores and the internet:


      Ron Foo's Old Lanterns



      One of my favorite lanterns is the Petromax lantern. This lantern has been around since 1910 and was the first “pressurized” lantern meaning there was no wick but had pressure to force the fuel into a generator. This lantern operates with kerosene, was developed by Max & Adolf Graetz in Berlin, Germany around 1910. From their efforts arose the brand "Petromax" and the parts for these products have not changed in over 80 years.


      Even though these lanterns were designed for use with kerosene, almost any sort of fuel could be used. Diesel, kerosene, mineral spirits, gasoline, “Coleman fuel” (the stuff you find at Wal-Mart for about $3.00 per gallon), ($8 now) lamp oil (scented and unscented), and even Citronella oil to help rid you of mosquitoes will all burn in this lantern. If you happen to be running the lantern on, let’s say kerosene, and you run out of kerosene but have a lot of mineral spirits, put it in along with the kerosene. The lantern will run just fine.

      I have had my lantern running on a mixture of diesel, kerosene, and citronella and the lantern operated just fine. Also…you will not find any lantern out there brighter than a Petromax. Most lanterns (Coleman, etc.) have about 100 to 150 watts or so light output. Compare this to the 400 watts a Petromax gives. My friends have said it’s called a PetroMAX not a PetroMIN…

      If do own a Petromax, here's a handy modification for easier operation. The pump that pressurizes the tank is good, but it takes a lot of pumping to run the preheat torch to heat the generator. Then you have to pump more to get the lantern up to the red line on the gage. An easier solution is to make a valve so you can connect the lantern to a tire pump or compressor.

      Go to your auto parts store and buy a schrader valve. Take the pump handle out of the lantern and remove the pump handle. What you want is the part that screws onto the lantern. Drill the part to accommodate the schrader valve. Here's what mine looks like. I understand somebody makes this ready to go on the Internet. This is a simple and quick project.

      Then… Buy a small tire pump and put it into your Petromax carry case. You'll be able to maintain the pressure in your lantern while pre-heating or operating the lantern.

      Remember! Pump to the red line! No more than that!!!

      A Petromax lantern is made from solid brass. No thin sheet metal that rusts and then plugs generators. The basic design has not changed since the first model and the parts are interchangeable with little or no problem.

      There are several knock-offs of these and the Butterfly brand seems to be the most popular, or it seems that way. Parts will even interchange with these!

      The German army used these lanterns in both World Wars and is in use even today. The Petromax even saw use during Desert Storm. With a special attachment you can even cook and boil water on top of the lantern.

      They are NOT cheap. You’ll spend at least $120 for the lantern but they are the best things around.

      Understanding how a pressure lantern works is pretty easy. Fuel, under pressure is metered through a small valve that shoots the fuel stream into a chamber called a generator, or in the case of a Petromax, the Upper Vaporizing Tube.


      This tube is the main key to how a pressure lantern works. As the fuel enters the tube it vaporizes into a gas from the heat of the burning fuel. Heat produced from the burning fuel then passes down to the mantles through a nozzle causing the mantle to glow. Mantles are made from rayon and coated with materials such as magnesium oxide and other chemicals to cause them to emit light. Heat now rises to heat the generator causing the fuel to vaporize and the cycle continues over and over until the fuel is shut off or exhausted.

      The amount of heat produced is considerable. The Petromax produces about 8,000 Btu per hour. This is more than enough to boil water or heat an area.

      If you would like to see more lanterns, especially Coleman's click here.

      Then click here for lanterns by different manufacturers.

      If old stoves are your things then click here.


      Both of these pages are at the museum's "other site" that has many, many pictures gathered from many shows and events.

      TO SEE THE PHOTOS AND LINKS, GO TO THE ARTICLE:
      http://ronfoo.com/lanterns.html




      “They that were foolish took their lamps, and took no oil with them:
      But the wise took oil in their vessels with their lamps.”
      ~ The Bible ~

      Comment


      • #4
        Re: KEROSENE LANTERNS, LANTERN FUEL, WICKS AND PARTS

        Anyone who is planing to use lanterns with glass chimneys may want to pick a few extra chimneys up at the hardware store. They can brake very easily. The chimney is the glass tube which surrounds the wick in a kerosene lamp. Make sure to get ones that fit your lanterns.
        We were put on this earth to help and take care of one another.

        Comment


        • #5
          Re: KEROSENE LANTERNS, LANTERN FUEL, WICKS AND PARTS

          FUEL FACTS AND FIGURES




          CANDLES:
          3/4" diameter x 4" burns about 2 hrs. 20 min.
          7/8" diameter x 4" burns about 5 hrs.
          2" diameter x 9" burns about 7 hrs. per inch
          Store candles in a cool area. Store at least 3 candles per day.


          CANNED HEAT:
          Stores easily and can be used indoors. A 7-ounce can burns about 1-1/2 hours. It will evaporate over long periods of time, especially if stored in a warm environment.


          FLASHLIGHT:
          2-battery with new batteries will run continuously for 6 hours. Store in a cool area. Many brands of batteries now have expiration dates on the package.


          OIL:
          Emergency candles can be made from cooking oil. Take a piece of string, lay one end in cooking oil in a dish and allow the other end to hang over the edge. Light the dry end. Use 7 to 8 strings for more light. These are very smoky and should be used only when nothing else is available.


          NEWSPAPER LOGS: Four logs burn approximately 1 hour and produce heat comparable to the same amount of wood on a pound-for-pound basis.


          CHARCOAL:
          Use for outdoor cooking only. Store in moisture resistant containers to keep dry. When used in a foil oven, use 1 briquette for every 40 degrees of temperature desired. For Dutch oven cooking, use the oven size in inches plus 3 briquettes on top and the oven size in inches minus 3 briquettes on the bottom for 350 - 375OF heat.


          KEROSENE:
          With a 1" wick, a kerosene lantern will burn for 45 hours on 1 quart. Burning 5 hours each day, the following amounts of kerosene would be used: Per day, 1/9 qt.; per month, 3-1/3 qts.; per year, 10 gallons. Kerosene is one of the least expensive liquid fuels. It stores for long periods and can be used indoors with good ventilation. To avoid the kerosene smell, start and extinguish lanterns outside.


          WHITE GAS:
          To burn a 2 mantel lantern 5 hours a day, the following amounts of white gas would be used: Per day 5/12 qt.; per month, 3-1/8 gallons; per year, 38 gallons. For a two-burner stove burning 4 hours per day, the following amounts would be used: Per day, 1 qt.; per month, 7-1/2 gallons; per year, 91 gallons. White gas is the most costly and should be used outdoors.


          PROPANE:
          Propane is very portable. It may be used indoors with good ventilation IF the equipment is made for indoor use. However, propane grills and camp stoves should only be used outdoors. Propane should be stored outdoors. Butane, another LPG gas, can be used indoors with good ventilation and is safe to store.


          CAUTION*****DO NOT STORE LIQUID FUELS IN THE HOME OR WITHIN THE REACH OF CHILDREN.

          http://www.simplyprepared.com/Fuel%2...%20figures.htm

          Comment


          • #6
            Re: KEROSENE LANTERNS, LANTERN FUEL, WICKS AND PARTS

            Should we experience a prolonged power outage, we will need a lot of matches to light gas stoves, oil lamps, lanterns, candles, the fireplace, hot water tanks, etc.
            It is recommended that we all have a supply of matches.
            But just how many matches are needed if the power should remain off for one year?
            I came up with a figure of almost 8,000 matches for the year. I may be way too low or high on the estimated usage.
            I thought I was well prepared with 1,500 wooden matches!

            This is how I estimated the daily usage:
            6 matches to light the stove burners 3 x per day for cooking
            12 matches to light lamps and candles
            1 for the wood stove
            2 for the fireplace
            21 each day x 365 = 7,665

            How close am I to how many matches are actually needed?
            Matches are readily available now and very inexpensive. 8,000 matches would cost less than $20US.

            Some further reading on matches:
            http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Match

            May you have warmth in your igloo, oil in your lamp, and peace in your heart.
            ~ Eskimo Proverb ~

            Comment


            • #7
              Re: KEROSENE LANTERNS, LANTERN FUEL, WICKS AND PARTS

              Originally posted by Jonesie View Post
              Should we experience a prolonged power outage, we will need a lot of matches to light gas stoves, oil lamps, lanterns, candles, the fireplace, hot water tanks, etc.
              It is recommended that we all have a supply of matches.
              But just how many matches are needed if the power should remain off for one year?
              I came up with a figure of almost 8,000 matches for the year. I may be way too low or high on the estimated usage.
              I thought I was well prepared with 1,500 wooden matches!

              This is how I estimated the daily usage:
              6 matches to light the stove burners 3 x per day for cooking
              12 matches to light lamps and candles
              1 for the wood stove
              2 for the fireplace
              21 each day x 365 = 7,665

              How close am I to how many matches are actually needed?
              Matches are readily available now and very inexpensive. 8,000 matches would cost less than $20US.

              Some further reading on matches:
              http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Match

              May you have warmth in your igloo, oil in your lamp, and peace in your heart.
              ~ Eskimo Proverb ~
              Would you need a match for each burner? I would light one and then use part of the food packaging (cardboard or rolled up paper ) to light the other. That would save three matches a day, more if you use the same paper/cardboard to light something else as well. Once one candle is burning you can use it to light another candle and so on.
              I'm getting kerosene lanterns for Christmas! Yay

              Comment


              • #8
                Re: KEROSENE LANTERNS, LANTERN FUEL, WICKS AND PARTS

                An unlit match is a safe way to transport fire around your home.




                An overwhelming number of fires occur in the home. There are time-tested ways to prevent and survive a fire. It’s not a question of luck. It’s a matter of practicing and planning ahead.
                How do I practice...

                <table class="twocol" id="practice"><tbody><tr> <td>
                Bedroom Fire Safety
                </td> <td>
                College Fire Safety
                </td> </tr> <tr> <td>
                Cooking Fire Safety
                </td> <td>
                Electrical Fire Safety
                </td> </tr> <tr> <td>
                Fire Safety for Older Adults
                </td> <td>
                Fire Safety for People with Disabilities
                </td> </tr> <tr> <td>
                Fireworks and Summer Fire Safety
                </td> <td>
                Highrise Fire Safety
                </td> </tr> <tr> <td>
                Hotel/Motel Fire Safety
                </td> <td>
                Holiday Fire Safety
                </td> </tr> <tr> <td>
                Home Heating and Winter Fire Safety
                </td> <td>
                Manufactured Home Fire Safety
                </td> </tr> <tr> <td>
                Rural Fire Safety
                </td> <td>
                Smoking Fire Safety
                </td></tr></tbody></table>
                http://www.firesafety.gov/citizens/firesafety/index.shtm

                Comment


                • #9
                  Re: KEROSENE LANTERNS, LANTERN FUEL, WICKS AND PARTS

                  Originally posted by AnneZ View Post
                  An unlit match is a safe way to transport fire around your home.




                  An overwhelming number of fires occur in the home. There are time-tested ways to prevent and survive a fire. It’s not a question of luck. It’s a matter of practicing and planning ahead.
                  How do I practice...

                  <table class="twocol" id="practice"><tbody><tr> <td>
                  Bedroom Fire Safety
                  </td> <td>
                  College Fire Safety
                  </td> </tr> <tr> <td>
                  Cooking Fire Safety
                  </td> <td>
                  Electrical Fire Safety
                  </td> </tr> <tr> <td>
                  Fire Safety for Older Adults
                  </td> <td>
                  Fire Safety for People with Disabilities
                  </td> </tr> <tr> <td>
                  Fireworks and Summer Fire Safety
                  </td> <td>
                  Highrise Fire Safety
                  </td> </tr> <tr> <td>
                  Hotel/Motel Fire Safety
                  </td> <td>
                  Holiday Fire Safety
                  </td> </tr> <tr> <td>
                  Home Heating and Winter Fire Safety
                  </td> <td>
                  Manufactured Home Fire Safety
                  </td> </tr> <tr> <td>
                  Rural Fire Safety
                  </td> <td>
                  Smoking Fire Safety
                  </td></tr></tbody></table>
                  http://www.firesafety.gov/citizens/firesafety/index.shtm
                  That's great, and very timely! I singed my hair a little yesterday while cooking, time to cut it off and mail it to locks of love!
                  I can see it's not safe to carry fire around, but I wonder how safe it is to store large amounts of matches? They won't combust will they?
                  Does anyone know how many matches a bic lighter would replace? Maybe it would be easier and cheaper to pick up a multipack of disposable lighters. They're sealed, so they should store safely, right?

                  Comment


                  • #10
                    Re: KEROSENE LANTERNS, LANTERN FUEL, WICKS AND PARTS

                    Safety Matches

                    <!-- end include --><!-- **************************************** Link to movie --><!-- #include "goToMovie.incl" #TopicMovie#="MATCHES/MATCHES2" #Text#="Play movie" --> Play movie <!-- end include --><!-- **************************************** Tell viewer the duration and size of the movie --><!-- #include "GetField.script" #dataBase#="movie captions" #returnField#="MAIN size sorenson 320" #searchArg#="MATCHES2"--> (QuickTime 3.0 Sorenson, duration 20 seconds, size 1.6 MB) <!-- end include --> <!-- **************************************** Text caption for the movie --> <!-- #include "GetField.script" #dataBase#="movie captions" #returnField#="text usually voiceover" #searchArg#="MATCHES2"--> The gritty material on the side of a match-box is coated with red phosphorus. The match-head contains potassium chlorate and some red coloring. When the match-head rubs against the box, friction ignites the mixture of phosphorus and potassium chlorate.
                    <!-- end include --><!-- **************************************** picture(s) --> <!-- #include "picture2.incl" #TopicMovie#="MATCHES/MATCHES2" #N1#="10" #T1#="A match-box." #N2#="11" #T2#="Friction ignites the mixture of phosphorus and potassium chlorate." --> <table border="0" cellpadding="6" cellspacing="0"><tbody><tr> <td height="90" valign="top" width="120">
                    A match-box. </td> <td height="90" valign="top" width="120">
                    Friction ignites the mixture of phosphorus and potassium chlorate. </td> </tr></tbody></table> <!-- end include --><!-- **************************************** Other still images --> <!-- #include "RightRefStills.incl" #TopicMovie#="MATCHES/MATCHES2"--> <hr size="1"> <!-- end include --> <!-- **************************************** Discussion --> Discussion

                    <!-- #include "discussion.1"--> By separating the strong oxidizer (potassium chlorate) from the reducer (phosphorus) the matches are prevented from igniting spontaneously.
                    Unlike the safety matches shown here, strike-anywhere matches are made with oxidizer and reducer together in the match head so that only friction or elevated temperature is required to ignite them.

                    Comment


                    • #11
                      Re: KEROSENE LANTERNS, LANTERN FUEL, WICKS AND PARTS

                      BIC makes a long handled lighter. The whole thing is about 12+ inches long. It's a safe way to light BBQs, candles in large glass jars, etc. They come in a 2-pack and are low-priced. Some are as low as $US1.69/ea. I use them regularly for a variety of safe fire applications.

                      See http://housewares.hardwarestore.com/...-lighters.aspx
                      for several models.

                      .
                      "The next major advancement in the health of American people will be determined by what the individual is willing to do for himself"-- John Knowles, Former President of the Rockefeller Foundation

                      Comment


                      • #12
                        Re: KEROSENE LANTERNS, LANTERN FUEL, WICKS AND PARTS

                        Originally posted by tygerkittn View Post
                        That's great, and very timely! I singed my hair a little yesterday while cooking, time to cut it off and mail it to locks of love!
                        I can see it's not safe to carry fire around, but I wonder how safe it is to store large amounts of matches? They won't combust will they?
                        Does anyone know how many matches a bic lighter would replace? Maybe it would be easier and cheaper to pick up a multipack of disposable lighters. They're sealed, so they should store safely, right?
                        TK, IMHO, strike anywhere matches are accidents waiting to happen.

                        They aren't called 'barn burners' for nothing.

                        A lot of people like them because of the tacti-cool factor, but in a SHTF senario, I'd feel a lot better if they weren't around. I don't keep them around, but I keep ammo, etc.

                        Any significant shock to a container of them could cause ignition. There are countless stories of fires resulting from abrasion, mice chewing them, etc.

                        Comment


                        • #13
                          Re: KEROSENE LANTERNS, LANTERN FUEL, WICKS AND PARTS

                          Has anyone tried one of the wind-up lanterns?

                          The lanterns come with up to 15 LED bulbs, radios, even cell-phone chargers. They are priced from about $US20 to $US45.

                          I've used my wind-up flashlight frequently, with no problems, so hopefully the lantern has similar results.

                          .
                          "The next major advancement in the health of American people will be determined by what the individual is willing to do for himself"-- John Knowles, Former President of the Rockefeller Foundation

                          Comment


                          • #14
                            Re: KEROSENE LANTERNS, LANTERN FUEL, WICKS AND PARTS

                            Originally posted by AlaskaDenise View Post
                            Has anyone tried one of the wind-up lanterns?

                            The lanterns come with up to 15 LED bulbs, radios, even cell-phone chargers. They are priced from about $US20 to $US45.

                            I've used my wind-up flashlight frequently, with no problems, so hopefully the lantern has similar results.

                            .
                            Don't have one but know those who do.

                            Like any mechanical device they are prone to failure. Also quality of the units varies all over the place.

                            I would suggest having more than one, [one is none, two is one] and buying quality units.

                            Also have alternatives to them.

                            Comment


                            • #15
                              Re: KEROSENE LANTERNS, LANTERN FUEL, WICKS AND PARTS

                              Hint: Never clean the glass chimney on a kerosene or oil lantern with a wet towel or wet cloth while it is hot. The glass will break.
                              We were put on this earth to help and take care of one another.

                              Comment

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