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    <TABLE id=apex_layout_271110100662109808 class=formlayout summary=""><TBODY><TR><TD noWrap align=left>02-MAR-2009</TD></TR><TR><TD noWrap align=right>Subject</TD><TD noWrap align=left>PRO/AH/EDR> Kyasanur forest disease - India (KA)</TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>

    KYASANUR FOREST DISEASE - INDIA (KARNATAKA)*******************************************A ProMED-mail post<>ProMED-mail is a program of theInternational Society for Infectious Diseases<>Date: Sat 28 Feb 2009Source: [edited]< kih9Fx2K4=&SectionID=7GUA3>Kyasanur forest disease (KFD), commonly known as monkey fever, resurfaced in Honnavar taluk [district subdivision] this year [2009]. This was confirmed by taluk medical officer Usha Hasyagar and medical officer in charge of the Honnavar KFD centre, Vaishali Nayak.The blood samples of 9 villagers tested positive for the disease,they said. According to them, 24 villagers have been suffering froman unknown disease for a few days. Meanwhile, 14 monkeys were founddead in the forest region near Bailgadde, Mavinhole, Hirebail,Chikkolli, Darbejaddi, Tolsani, Jinnod and Sigadi villages in thetaluk.A vaccine is available in the primary health centres at Kharva andGersoppa villages, Nayak said. Sources in the health department saidthat officers have been appointed in Honnavar taluk to control thedisease. Health workers would visit every house in the affectedvillages to create awareness about the disease.--Communicated by:ProMED-mail <>[Kyasanur forest disease (KFD) is caused by Kyasanur forest diseasevirus (KFDV), a member of the family _Flaviviridae_. KFDV wasidentified in 1957 when it was isolated from a sick monkey from theKyasanur forest in Karnataka (formerly Mysore) state, India. The mainhosts of KFDV are small rodents, but shrews, bats, and monkeys mayalso carry the virus. KFD is transmitted from the bite of an infectedtick (_Haemaphysalis spinigera_ is the major vector). Humans can getthis disease from a tick bite or by contact with an infected animal,such as a sick or recently dead monkey. Larger animals such as goats,cows, and sheep may become infected with KFD, but they do not have arole in the transmission of the disease. Furthermore, there is noevidence of the disease being transmitted via the unpasteurized milkof any of these animals. It occurs principally in the Shimoga andKanara district of Karnataka, India and is common in young adultsexposed during the dry season in the forest.After an incubation period of 3-8 days, the symptoms of KFD beginsuddenly with fever, headache, severe muscle pain, cough,dehydration, gastrointestinal symptoms and bleeding problems.Patients may experience abnormally low blood pressure and lowplatelet, red blood cell, and white blood cell counts. After 1-2weeks of symptoms, some patients recover without complications.However, in most patients, the illness is biphasic, and the patientbegins experiencing a 2nd wave of symptoms at the beginning of the3rd week. These symptoms include fever and signs of encephalitis(inflammation of the brain). The diagnosis is made by virus isolationfrom blood or by serologic testing using enzyme-linked immunosorbentserologic assay. There are approximately 400-500 cases of KFD peryear with a case fatality rate of 3-5 percent.Some of this information has been extracted from the CDC fact sheet (see:<>).The above report mentions the local availability of a vaccine. Avaccine has not been generally available in the past; furtherinformation would be welcomed.A map of the states of India showing the location of the state ofKarnataka can be accessed at<>.,76387</PRE>