Indian J Virol. 2013 Dec;24(3):398-408. doi: 10.1007/s13337-013-0171-y. Epub 2013 Nov 7.
Nipah virus infection: current scenario.
Kulkarni DD, Tosh C, Venkatesh G, Senthil Kumar D.
Author information
Abstract

The emergence of Nipah virus (NiV) infection into the pig population and subsequently into the human population is believed to be due to changes in ecological conditions. In Malaysia, A major NiV outbreak occurred in pigs and humans from September 1998 to April 1999 that resulted in infection of 265 and death of 105 persons. About 1.1 million pigs had to be destroyed to control the outbreak. The disease was recorded in the form of a major outbreak in India in 2001 and then a small incidence in 2007, both the outbreaks in West Bengal only in humans without any involvement of pigs. There were series of human Nipah incidences in Bangladesh from 2001 till 2013 almost every year with mortality exceeding 70 %. The disease transmission from pigs acting as an intermediate host during Malaysian and Singapore outbreaks has changed in NIV outbreaks in India and Bangladesh, transmitting the disease directly from bats to human followed by human to human. The drinking of raw date palm sap contaminated with fruit bat urine or saliva containing NiV is the only known cause of outbreak of the disease in Bangladesh outbreaks. The virus is now known to exist in various fruit bats of Pteropus as well as bats of other genera in a wider belt from Asia to Africa.
KEYWORDS:

Encephalitis, Fruit bats, Henipavirus, NiV, Nipah virus, Pigs

PMID:
24426305
[PubMed]
PMCID:
PMC3832692
[Available on 2014/12/1]

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24426305