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Effect of an Intensive Lifestyle Intervention on Glycemic Control in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes - A Randomized Clinical Trial

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  • Effect of an Intensive Lifestyle Intervention on Glycemic Control in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes - A Randomized Clinical Trial

    August 15, 2017

    Key Points

    Question Can an intensive lifestyle intervention achieve glycemic control comparable with standard care in patients with type 2 diabetes?

    Findings In this randomized clinical trial of 98 adults with type 2 diabetes diagnosed for less than 10 years, and which was designed to assess equivalence, the lifestyle intervention vs standard care resulted in a mean change in hemoglobin A1c level of −0.31% vs −0.04%, respectively. The 95% CI around the difference (−0.52% to −0.01%) exceeded the prespecified equivalence margin of ±0.4%.

    Meaning An intensive lifestyle intervention did not meet the criterion for equivalence for glycemic control, but the direction of findings suggests potential benefit.

    Abstract

    Importance It is unclear whether a lifestyle intervention can maintain glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Objective To test whether an intensive lifestyle intervention results in equivalent glycemic control compared with standard care and, secondarily, leads to a reduction in glucose-lowering medication in participants with type 2 diabetes.

    Design, Setting, and Participants Randomized, assessor-blinded, single-center study within Region Zealand and the Capital Region of Denmark (April 2015-August 2016). Ninety-eight adult participants with non–insulin-dependent type 2 diabetes who were diagnosed for less than 10 years were included. Participants were randomly assigned (2:1; stratified by sex) to the lifestyle group (n = 64) or the standard care group (n = 34).

    Interventions All participants received standard care with individual counseling and standardized, blinded, target-driven medical therapy. Additionally, the lifestyle intervention included 5 to 6 weekly aerobic training sessions (duration 30-60 minutes), of which 2 to 3 sessions were combined with resistance training. The lifestyle participants received dietary plans aiming for a body mass index of 25 or less. Participants were followed up for 12 months.

    Main Outcomes and Measures Primary outcome was change in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) from baseline to 12-month follow-up, and equivalence was prespecified by a CI margin of ±0.4% based on the intention-to-treat population. Superiority analysis was performed on the secondary outcome reductions in glucose-lowering medication.

    Results Among 98 randomized participants (mean age, 54.6 years [SD, 8.9]; women, 47 [48%]; mean baseline HbA1c, 6.7%), 93 participants completed the trial. From baseline to 12-month follow-up, the mean HbA1c level changed from 6.65% to 6.34% in the lifestyle group and from 6.74% to 6.66% in the standard care group (mean between-group difference in change of −0.26% [95% CI, −0.52% to −0.01%]), not meeting the criteria for equivalence (P = .15). Reduction in glucose-lowering medications occurred in 47 participants (73.5%) in the lifestyle group and 9 participants (26.4%) in the standard care group (difference, 47.1 percentage points [95% CI, 28.6-65.3]). There were 32 adverse events (most commonly musculoskeletal pain or discomfort and mild hypoglycemia) in the lifestyle group and 5 in the standard care group.

    Conclusions and Relevance Among adults with type 2 diabetes diagnosed for less than 10 years, a lifestyle intervention compared with standard care resulted in a change in glycemic control that did not reach the criterion for equivalence, but was in a direction consistent with benefit. Further research is needed to assess superiority, as well as generalizability and durability of findings.
    This randomized clinical trial compared the effects of an intensive lifestyle intervention vs standard care on glycemic control and medication reduction among p
    “Addressing chronic disease is an issue of human rights – that must be our call to arms"
    Richard Horton, Editor-in-Chief The Lancet

    ~~~~ Twitter:@GertvanderHoek ~~~ GertvanderHoek@gmail.com ~~~
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