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One Health . Potential risk zones and climatic factors influencing the occurrence and persistence of avian influenza viruses in the environment of live bird markets in Bangladesh

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  • One Health . Potential risk zones and climatic factors influencing the occurrence and persistence of avian influenza viruses in the environment of live bird markets in Bangladesh

    One Health


    . 2023 Oct 13:17:100644.
    doi: 10.1016/j.onehlt.2023.100644. eCollection 2023 Dec. Potential risk zones and climatic factors influencing the occurrence and persistence of avian influenza viruses in the environment of live bird markets in Bangladesh

    Ariful Islam 1 2 , Emama Amin 1 3 , Sarah Munro 1 , Mohammad Enayet Hossain 4 , Shariful Islam 1 3 , Mohammad Mahmudul Hassan 5 , Abdullah Al Mamun 1 3 , Mohammed Abdus Samad 6 , Tahmina Shirin 3 , Mohammed Ziaur Rahman 4 , Jonathan H Epstein 1



    AffiliationsFree PMC article Abstract

    Live bird markets (LBMs) are critical for poultry trade in many developing countries that are regarded as hotspots for the prevalence and contamination of avian influenza viruses (AIV). Therefore, we conducted weekly longitudinal environmental surveillance in LBMs to determine annual cyclic patterns of AIV subtypes, environmental risk zones, and the role of climatic factors on the AIV presence and persistence in the environment of LBM in Bangladesh. From January 2018 to March 2020, we collected weekly fecal and offal swab samples from each LBM and tested using rRT-PCR for the M gene and subtyped for H5, H7, and H9. We used Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) approaches to account for repeated observations over time to correlate the AIV prevalence and potential risk factors and the negative binomial and Poisson model to investigate the role of climatic factors on environmental contamination of AIV at the LBM. Over the study period, 37.8% of samples tested AIV positive, 18.8% for A/H5, and A/H9 was, for 15.4%. We found the circulation of H5, H9, and co-circulation of H5 and H9 in the environmental surfaces year-round. The Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) model reveals a distinct seasonal pattern in transmitting AIV and H5. Specifically, certain summer months exhibited a substantial reduction of risk up to 70-90% and 93-94% for AIV and H5 contamination, respectively. The slaughtering zone showed a significantly higher risk of contamination with H5, with a three-fold increase in risk compared to bird-holding zones. From the negative binomial model, we found that climatic factors like temperature and relative humidity were also significantly associated with weekly AIV circulation. An increase in temperature and relative humidity decreases the risk of AIV circulation. Our study underscores the significance of longitudinal environmental surveillance for identifying potential risk zones to detect H5 and H9 virus co-circulation and seasonal transmission, as well as the imperative for immediate interventions to reduce AIV at LBMs in Bangladesh. We recommend adopting a One Health approach to integrated AIV surveillance across animal, human, and environmental interfaces in order to prevent the epidemic and pandemic of AIV.

    Keywords: Contaminations; H9; HPAI H5; Meteorological factors; One health; Slaughtering zone; Surveillance; Zoonotic spillover.

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