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Minnesota - Avian flu in mammals 2024

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  • Minnesota - Avian flu in mammals 2024

    United States of America - Influenza A viruses of high pathogenicity (Inf. with) (non-poultry including wild birds) (2017-) - Follow up report 43


    GENERAL INFORMATION

    COUNTRY/TERRITORY OR ZONE
    ZONE
    \
    ANIMAL TYPE
    TERRESTRIAL

    DISEASE CATEGORY
    Listed disease

    EVENT ID
    4451

    DISEASE
    Influenza A viruses of high pathogenicity (Inf. with) (non-poultry including wild birds) (2017-)

    CAUSAL AGENT
    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus

    GENOTYPE / SEROTYPE / SUBTYPE
    H5N1

    START DATE
    2022/03/30

    REASON FOR NOTIFICATION
    Unusual host species

    DATE OF LAST OCCURRENCE- CONFIRMATION DATE
    2022/05/05

    EVENT STATUS
    On-going

    END DATE- SELF-DECLARATION

    NO REPORT INFORMATION

    REPORT NUMBER
    Follow-up report 43

    REPORT ID
    FUR_166488

    REPORT REFERENCE- REPORT DATE
    2024/03/18

    REPORT STATUS
    Validated

    NO EVOLUTION REPORT

    EPIDEMIOLOGY

    SOURCE OF EVENT OR ORIGIN OF INFECTION
    • Contact with wild species
    • Unknown or inconclusive
    EPIDEMIOLOGICAL COMMENTS
    USDA’s National Veterinary Services Laboratories confirmed highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in neonatal goat kids that demonstrated neurologic signs from a Minnesota backyard premises recently affected with HPAI. The goats on the premises shared the same pasture and sole water source with infected ducks and chickens. The goats began to kid only days after the birds were depopulated. Of 10 goat kids that have died, ranging from 5 days to 9 days of age, five goat kids between 7 and 9 days of age have tested positive on brain and other tissues for H5N1 clade 2.3.4.4b virus. Whole genome sequence data available to date from the chickens, ducks, and the first goat kid tested share high identity, and are Eurasian/North American reassortant genotype B3.6 (GenoFlu https://github.com/USDA-VS/GenoFLU)

    QUANTITATIVE DATA SUMMARY

    MEASURING UNIT
    Animal

    SpeciesSusceptibleCasesDeathsKilled and Disposed ofSlaughtered/ Killed for commercial useVaccinated Coyote (WILD)NEW------TOTAL-1-1-- Cats (DOMESTIC)NEW------TOTAL-714-- Virginia Opossum (WILD)NEW------TOTAL-431-- Domestic cat (WILD)NEW------TOTAL-611-- Goats (DOMESTIC)NEW16555---TOTAL16555--- Gray Seal (WILD)NEW------TOTAL-11--- Bobcat (WILD)NEW------TOTAL-642-- Striped Skunk (WILD)NEW-131--TOTAL-422714-- Tiger (WILD)NEW------TOTAL-11--- Harbor Seal (WILD)NEW------TOTAL-21192-- Racoon (Northern raccoon) (WILD)NEW------TOTAL-1554-- Puma (WILD)NEW--1---TOTAL-2222--- Bottlenose dolphin (WILD)NEW------TOTAL-11--- American Black Bear (black bear) (WILD)NEW------TOTAL-413-- Brown bear (Grizzly Bear) (WILD)NEW------TOTAL-431-- Polar Bear (WILD)NEW------TOTAL--1--- Red Fox (WILD)NEW------TOTAL-854819-- Amur Leopard (WILD)NEW------TOTAL-11--- Fisher (WILD)NEW------TOTAL-321-- North American river otter (WILD)NEW------TOTAL-11--- American marten (WILD)NEW------TOTAL-11--- Abert's squirrel (WILD)NEW------TOTAL-1---- All speciesNEW165691--TOTAL16523214853--

    DIAGNOSTIC DETAILS

    CLINICAL SIGNS
    YES

    METHOD OF DIAGNOSTIC
    Clinical, Diagnostic test
    Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL), Ames, Iowa Bobcat,Domestic cat,Fisher,Cats,Brown bear (Grizzly Bear),Red Fox,American Black Bear (black bear),Tiger,Gray Seal,Puma,Racoon (Northern raccoon),North American river otter,Harbor Seal,American marten,Bottlenose dolphin,Virginia Opossum,Striped Skunk,Amur Leopard,Coyote,Abert's squirrel,Goats,Polar Bear 173 2022/05/05 2024/03/08 Positive
    https://wahis.woah.org/#/in-review/4451

  • #2
    News Release

    For immediate release: March 20, 2024

    Contact: Dan Callahan

    Stevens County goat tests positive for same influenza virus affecting poultry

    A Stevens County goat kid (juvenile goat) residing on a farm with a Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) positive poultry flock tested positive for the same virus. This is the first U.S. detection of HPAI in a domestic ruminant (cattle, sheep, goats, and their relatives). All poultry on the property were already quarantined from the February HPAI detection. Following the confirmation of HPAI in the goat, the Board quarantined all other species on the premises. The Board is working with the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) to investigate the transmission of the virus in this case.

    “This finding is significant because, while the spring migration is definitely a higher risk transmission period for poultry, it highlights the possibility of the virus infecting other animals on farms with multiple species,” said State Veterinarian, Dr. Brian Hoefs. “Thankfully, research to-date has shown mammals appear to be dead-end hosts, which means they’re unlikely to spread HPAI further.”

    Earlier this month the owner notified the Board of unusual deaths of newly kidded goats on the property where a backyard poultry flock was depopulated due to HPAI in February. The goats and poultry had access to the same space, including a shared water source. One of the goat carcasses was taken to the University of Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (VDL), where it tested positive for influenza A. The National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL) later confirmed H5N1 HPAI, which is the same virus circulating in the national outbreak that began in 2022. Samples from the adult goats were negative for HPAI and all appear healthy; no more sick goat kids have been reported since March 11.

    HPAI has been previously diagnosed in other mammalian species such as skunks, dogs and cats. Animals with weakened or immature immune systems, like the goat kids in this case, are at higher risk of contracting disease. There has been limited experimental data on HPAI infection in ruminants, and there are no prior reports of natural HPAI infection in goats. The USDA has tracked more than 200 detections of HPAI in mammals across the country since the start of the 2022 HPAI outbreak.

    The Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) provided recommendations for personal protective equipment and is monitoring the health of those in direct contact with the infected goats. Anyone who develops respiratory or gastrointestinal symptoms after exposure to the goats may be voluntarily tested for avian influenza and other respiratory pathogens. The risk to the public is extremely low, and any risk of infection is limited to people in direct contact with infected animals. To date, no people in the United States have become ill following contact with mammals infected with this virus.

    Biosecurity is the first line of defense for anyone to protect their animals from disease and includes simple measures like cleaning equipment and housing regularly, separating livestock from wild animals, and calling your veterinarian when animals appear sick. To learn more important steps to protect your animals from HPAI and other diseases, visit the Board’s biosecurity webpage. For more information on the Board’s work to combat the spread of HPAI in Minnesota, please visit our response webpage.

    --30--

    "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
    -Nelson Mandela

    Comment


    • #3
      Source: https://www.mprnews.org/story/2024/0...minnesota-farm

      Goats contract bird flu on Minnesota farm
      Dan Gunderson
      March 20, 2024 11:23 AM​

      Updated: 3:05 p.m.

      Young goats on a Stevens County farm recently tested positive for the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus, according to the Minnesota Board of Animal Health.

      The agency said the detection is the first known U.S. avian influenza infection in domestic ruminants, which include cattle, sheep and goats. But a state official said the finding is not cause for alarm.

      “I think this probably reflects more a case of an immune-compromised individual. Specifically, these were young goats approximately a week of age, their immune systems weren’t very strong yet and they were exposed to a pretty heavy viral burden,” said State Veterinarian Brian Hoefs.

      Earlier this month the owner notified the Board of Animal Health about unusual deaths of young goats. A backyard poultry flock on the same farm was depopulated in February after testing positive for avian influenza. The goats and poultry shared space and a water source.​

      Hoefs said 10 carcasses were tested and five were positive for the highly pathogenic avian flu virus.

      “This finding is significant because, while the spring migration is definitely a higher risk transmission period for poultry, it highlights the possibility of the virus infecting other animals on farms with multiple species,” said Hoefs.​..

      Comment


      • #4
        United States of America - Influenza A viruses of high pathogenicity (Inf. with) (non-poultry including wild birds) (2017-) - Follow up report 44


        GENERAL INFORMATION

        COUNTRY/TERRITORY OR ZONE
        ZONE

        ANIMAL TYPE
        TERRESTRIAL

        DISEASE CATEGORY
        Listed disease

        EVENT ID
        4451

        DISEASE
        Influenza A viruses of high pathogenicity (Inf. with) (non-poultry including wild birds) (2017-)

        CAUSAL AGENT
        Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus

        GENOTYPE / SEROTYPE / SUBTYPE
        H5N1

        START DATE
        2022/03/30

        REASON FOR NOTIFICATION
        Unusual host species

        DATE OF LAST OCCURRENCE- CONFIRMATION DATE
        2022/05/05

        EVENT STATUS
        On-going

        END DATE- SELF-DECLARATION


        NO REPORT INFORMATION

        REPORT NUMBER
        Follow-up report 44

        REPORT ID
        FUR_166639

        REPORT REFERENCE- REPORT DATE
        2024/03/26

        REPORT STATUS
        Validated

        NO EVOLUTION REPORT

        EPIDEMIOLOGY

        SOURCE OF EVENT OR ORIGIN OF INFECTION
        • Contact with wild species
        • Unknown or inconclusive
        EPIDEMIOLOGICAL COMMENTS
        Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 Eurasian lineage goose/Guangdong clade 2.3.4.4b was confirmed in samples from sick cattle collected from at least one dairy farm in Kansas and at least one dairy farm in Texas. The initial sequences represent a sporadically detected 4 gene reassortant (B3.13 per GenoFlu) descended from the previously predominant genotype B3.2 first observed in wild birds in November 2023. No markers for mammalian adaptation nor antiviral resistance were observed. This is an evolving situation - additional work and studies are in process. Federal and state agencies are moving quickly to conduct additional testing for HPAI, as well as viral genome sequencing, so that we can better understand the situation, including characterization of the HPAI strain or strains associated with these detections.

        QUANTITATIVE DATA SUMMARY

        MEASURING UNIT
        Animal

        SpeciesSusceptibleCasesDeathsKilled and Disposed ofSlaughtered/ Killed for commercial useVaccinated Coyote (WILD)NEW------TOTAL-1-1-- Cats (DOMESTIC)NEW------TOTAL-714-- Virginia Opossum (WILD)NEW------TOTAL-431-- Domestic cat (WILD)NEW------TOTAL-611-- Goats (DOMESTIC)NEW------TOTAL165 55--- Gray Seal (WILD)NEW------TOTAL-11--- Bobcat (WILD)NEW------TOTAL-642-- Striped Skunk (WILD)NEW------TOTAL-422714-- Tiger (WILD)NEW------TOTAL-11--- Harbor Seal (WILD)NEW------TOTAL-21192-- Racoon (Northern raccoon) (WILD)NEW------TOTAL-1554-- Puma (WILD)NEW------TOTAL-2222--- Bottlenose dolphin (WILD)NEW------TOTAL-11--- American Black Bear (black bear) (WILD)NEW------TOTAL-413-- Brown bear (Grizzly Bear) (WILD)NEW------TOTAL-431-- Polar Bear (WILD)NEW------TOTAL--1--- Red Fox (WILD)NEW------TOTAL-854819-- Amur Leopard (WILD)NEW------TOTAL-11--- Fisher (WILD)NEW------TOTAL-321-- North American river otter (WILD)NEW------TOTAL-11--- American marten (WILD)NEW------TOTAL-11--- Abert's squirrel (WILD)NEW------TOTAL-1---- Bovine (DOMESTIC)NEW-90000TOTAL-90000 All speciesNEW-90000TOTAL1652411485300

        DIAGNOSTIC DETAILS

        CLINICAL SIGNS
        YES

        METHOD OF DIAGNOSTIC
        Clinical, Diagnostic test
        Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL), Ames, Iowa Bobcat,Domestic cat,Fisher,Red Fox,American Black Bear (black bear),Brown bear (Grizzly Bear),Gray Seal,Tiger,Racoon (Northern raccoon),Puma,Cats,American marten,Virginia Opossum,Bottlenose dolphin,Striped Skunk,Amur Leopard,Coyote,Abert's squirrel,North American river otter,Harbor Seal,Bovine,Goats,Polar Bear 175 2022/05/05 2024/03/25 Positive
        https://wahis.woah.org/#/in-review/4451

        Comment

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