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  • UN imposes a no-fly zone over Libya and authorises "all necessary measures" to protect civilians

    U.N. Approves Military Action in Libya to Halt Qaddafi Attacks</NYT_HEADLINE><NYT_BYLINE>
    By DAN BILEFSKY and KAREEM FAHIM

    </NYT_BYLINE>Published: March 17, 2011


    UNITED NATIONS ? The United Nations Security Council approved a measure on Thursday authorizing ?all necessary measures? to protect Libyan civilians from harm at the hands of forces loyal to Colonel Muammar el-Qaddafi.

    The measure allows not only a no-fly zone but effectively any measures short of a ground invasion to halt attacks that might result in civilian fatalities. It comes as Colonel Qaddafi warned residents of Benghazi, Libya, the rebel capital, that an attack was imminent and promised lenient treatment for those who offered no resistance.

    ?We are coming tonight,? Colonel Qaddafi said. ?You will come out from inside. Prepare yourselves from tonight. We will find you in your closets.?

    Read more:
    http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/18/wo...18nations.html
    "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
    -Nelson Mandela

  • #2
    UN imposes a no-fly zone over Libya and authorises &quot;all necessary measures&quot; to protect civilians

    <TABLE border=0 cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=0 width="100%"><TBODY><TR id=trHeadline><TD class=articleTitle vAlign=top>UN authorises no-fly zone over Libya </TD></TR><TR><TD class=Tmp_hSpace10><!----></TD></TR><TR><TD>Security Council imposes a no-fly zone over Libya and authorises "all necessary measures" to protect civilians.
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    Last Modified: 17 Mar 2011 22:40

    </TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>
    The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) has voted on a resolution authorising a no-fly zone over Libya and "all necessary measures" - code for military action - to protect citizens.

    Ten of the council's 15 members voted in favour of the resolution, with Russia, China and Germany the five that abstained.

    No votes were recorded against the resolution, which was co-sponsored by France, Britain, Lebanon and the United States.

    The resolution fulfills a long-standing demand from pro-democracy opposition forces in Libya asking for a no-fly zone to be established in order to prevent Muammar Gaddafi, the Libyan leader, from using fighter jets to bombard their positions, as they have been doing.

    .../

    http://english.aljazeera.net/news/af...311168561.html
    "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
    -Nelson Mandela

    Comment


    • #3
      Re: UN imposes a no-fly zone over Libya and authorises &quot;all necessary measures&quot; to protect civilians

      Security Council authorizes ?all necessary measures? to protect civilians in Libya


      A group of people heading towards the Libyan border with Tunisia

      17 March 2011 ? The Security Council today effectively authorized the use of force in Libya to protect civilians from attack, specifically in the eastern city of Benghazi, which Colonel Muammar Al-Qadhafi has reportedly said he will storm tonight to end a revolt against his regime.

      Acting under Chapter VII of the UN Charter, which provides for the use of force if needed, the Council adopted a resolution by 10 votes to zero, with five abstentions, authorizing Member States ?to take all necessary measures? to protect civilians and civilian populated areas under threat of attack in the Libyan Arab Jamhariya, including Benghazi, while excluding an occupation force.?

      The abstentions included China and Russia, which have the power of veto, as well as Brazil, Germany and India.

      Expressing grave concern at the deteriorating situation, the escalation of violence, and the heavy civilian casualties, the Council established a no-fly zone, banning all flights ? except those for humanitarian purposes ? in Libyan airspace in order to help protect civilians. It specifically calls on Arab League states to cooperate with other Member States in taking the necessary measures.

      The Arab League last weekend requested the Council to impose a no-fly zone after Mr. Qadhafi was reported to have used warplanes, warships, tanks and artillery to seize back cities taken over in what started out a month ago as mass protests by peaceful civilians seeking an end to his 41-year rule.

      The resolution further strengthens an arms embargo that the Council imposed last month when it unanimously approved sanctions against the Libyan authorities, freezing the assets of its leaders and referring the ongoing violent repression of civilian demonstrators to the International Criminal Court (ICC).

      The Council called on Member States today to ensure strict implementation of the embargo, including through inspection of suspect ships on the high seas and of planes going to or from Libya, deplored the flow of mercenaries into Libya whom, according to media reports, Mr. Qadhafi has recruited.

      Demanding an immediate ceasefire and a complete end to violence and all attacks against and abuse of civilians, and condemning the ?gross and systematic violation of human rights, including arbitrary detentions, enforced disappearances and summary executions,? the Council noted that the attacks currently taking place may amount to crimes against humanity.

      ICC prosecutor Luis Moreno-Ocampo has already opened an investigation into Mr. Qadhafi, some of his sons and members of his inner circle for such crimes in repressing peaceful protesters. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon has said Mr. Qadhafi lost his legitimacy when he declared war on his people.

      Mr. Ban spoke with Libya?s Foreign Minister Musa Kusa by phone yesterday and, through him, urged the authorities to immediately halt the violence against civilians.

      In its resolution, the Council condemned acts of violence and intimidation committed by the Libyan authorities against journalists, media professionals and associated personnel, and the head of the UN agency entrusted with promoting the right to freedom of expression today urged the authorities to respect human life and ensure that citizens are not denied their rights, notably the right of children to education in a safe environment.

      UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Director-General Irina Bokova reiterated her previous call to the Government to respect freedom of expression and ensure that journalists can carry out their duties freely without fear of intimidation or attack.

      The UN World Food Programme (WFP), meanwhile, has boosted aid delivery to people fleeing the violence in Libya with the provision of more than 15,000 daily hot meals cooked in a transit camp along Libya?s border with Tunisia. Some 300,000 people, mainly migrant workers, have fled over the borders to Tunisia and Egypt in the past month. Over the past week, WFP and its partner humanitarian organizations have been running the two largest food distribution points in Choucha transit camp on the Tunisian border. The centre hosts between 15,000 and 18,000 people, mainly Bangladeshis and African migrant workers, waiting to depart for their home countries.

      http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.as...8&Cr=libya&Cr1=
      "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
      -Nelson Mandela

      Comment


      • #4
        Re: UN imposes a no-fly zone over Libya and authorises &quot;all necessary measures&quot; to protect civilians

        <TABLE border=0 cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=0 width="100%"><TBODY><TR id=trHeadline><TD class=articleTitle vAlign=top>Libya declares immediate ceasefire </TD></TR><TR><TD class=Tmp_hSpace10><!----></TD></TR><TR><TD>Libya's foreign minister announces an end to military operations hours after the UN Security Council backs no-fly zone.
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        Last Modified: 18 Mar 2011 13:21

        </TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>Libya has announced it will halt all military operations in the country following a decision by the United Nations Security Council to back a no-fly zone over the country.

        Moussa Koussa, the Libyan foreign secretary, said his government was interested in protecting all civilians and foreigners in a statement televised on Friday.

        "We decided on an immediate ceasefire and on an immediate stop to all military operations," he said, adding "[Libya] takes great interest in protecting civilians".

        Koussa said because his country was a member of the United Nations it is "obliged to accept to UN Secutiry Council's resolutions".
        ...

        The announcement came after Britain said it was about to start sending fighter jets and surveillance aircraft to military bases in the Mediterrranean in preparation for a no-fly zone.

        David Cameron, the UK prime minister, said Tornado and Typhoon jets would be deployed imminently along with surveillance and re-fuelling planes.

        Full text:
        http://english.aljazeera.net/news/af...421218583.html
        "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
        -Nelson Mandela

        Comment


        • #5
          Re: UN imposes a no-fly zone over Libya and authorises &quot;all necessary measures&quot; to protect civilians

          U.S. warships launch airstrikes on Libya


          By Brian Bennett, Tribune Washington Bureau
          March 19, 2011, 1:54 p.m.

          Reporting from Washington?
          U.S. warships launched airstrikes at targets along Libya's coast on Saturday in an opening attack to degrade Moammar Kadafi's air defense systems and allow international allies to establish a no-fly zone aimed at protecting civilians.

          The U.S. and Britain launched more than 110 Tomahawk missiles at more than 20 targets. The strikes targeted specifically surface-to-air missile sites and radar detectors that are part of the Libyan military's air defense infrastructure, said Vice Admiral William E. Gortney, commander of U.S. Naval Forces Central Command.

          The U.S. had identified sites along the coast of Libya, including around the capital of Tripoli and the city of Misratah, the Pentagon confirmed.

          While President Obama has emphasized that American forces would play a subordinate role in enforcing the no-fly zone over Libya, the Pentagon said the U.S. had to lead the operation in its early days because it has the greatest capability to destroy Kadafi's air defenses, a key prerequisite to taking control of Libya's airspace.

          Once that portion of the mission is accomplished, international partners led by France, the United Kingdom and Arab partners will enforce the no-fly zone, U.S. officials said.

          More...
          http://www.latimes.com/news/nationwo...,7579064.story
          "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
          -Nelson Mandela

          Comment


          • #6
            Re: UN imposes a no-fly zone over Libya and authorises &quot;all necessary measures&quot; to protect civilians



            'ODYSSEY' OPERATION - The guided-missile destroyer USS Stout launches a Tomahawk missile to support Operation Odyssey Dawn in the Mediterranean Sea, March 19, 2011. This was one of approximately 110 cruise missiles fired from U.S. and British ships and submarines that targeted about 20 radar and anti-aircraft sites along Libya's Mediterranean coast. U.S. Navy photo by Petty Officer 3rd Class Jeramy Spivey


            Mullen Says No-fly Zone 'Effectively in Place'

            By Army Sgt. 1st Class Michael J. Carden
            American Forces Press Service

            WASHINGTON, March 20, 2011 ? Initial operations in Libya have been very effective with French, British and U.S. air strikes crippling Libyan dictator Moammar Gadhafi?s capabilities, the U.S. military?s top-ranking officer said today.

            Speaking on CNN?s State of the Union with Candy Crowley, Navy Adm. Mike Mullen, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, said after one day of operations, the coalition has already ?taken out? most of Gadhafi?s air defenses and airfields and that the no-fly zone in Libya has been established.

            ?We?ve worked hard to plan this in a relatively short period of time,? Mullen said. ?I would say that the no-fly zone is effectively in place.?

            Gadhafi?s forces are stretched thin between the Libyan oil towns and major cities of Tripoli and Benghazi, Mullen said, noting that U.S. fighter jets have delivered major blows to forces in those towns and are now working to attack Gadhafi?s supply lines.

            ?We?ve got combat air patrols and aircraft over Benghazi, and we?ll have them their on a 24/7 basis,? the admiral explained. ?[Gadhafi forces] hasn?t flown any aircraft in the past two days. He?s pretty well stretched now, and we will endeavor to sever his logistics support here in the next day or so.

            ?We?re in a situation now where what we do will depend to some degree on what he does,? Mullen added. ?We?ve focused mainly on his air defense capabilities and airfields, [but] this will allow us to get other capabilities where we can jam his communications and those kinds of things.?

            Currently, U.S. Africom commander Army Gen. Carter F. Ham is leading the coalition effort in Libya. Mullen said he expects the Ham to hand off that command to a coalition commander in the next few days, and that the United States will transition to more of a supporting role in an effort that will involve more nations, including Arab militaries.

            ?As more and more capabilities from other countries start to show up, I think you?ll see the U.S. move to more of a support role,? the chairman said. ?I?m very confident that there will be military capabilities from some Arab nations, that they are actually moving into theater now.

            ?That?s been the commitment on part of the political leadership in some Arab countries, and I expect that to happen militarily, as well,? he added.
            Mullen also fielded questions on ABC?s This Week with Christiane Amanpour.

            With Arab states joining the coalition effort, Gadhafi is more isolated by the international community than every before, Mullen said, noting United Nations sanctions and an arms embargo now emplaced on Libya.

            However, although Gadhafi may be vulnerable, Mullen stressed that the U.S. military objective right now is not to topple Gadhafi?s regime. Rather, he said, it?s to ensure the no-fly zone, protect Libyan civilians and support humanitarian assistance to flow into the country.

            ?We?re very focused on the limited objective [President Barack Obama] and the international community has given us in terms of providing the no-fly zone so [Gadhafi] cannot attack his own people, to avoid any kind of humanitarian massacre and to provide for the humanitarian support of the Libyan people,? he explained.

            The international military effort so far has been very successful, he said.

            ?From a military standpoint, certainly [Gadhafi?s forces] have some capabilities, but they?ve not been very effective,? Mullen said. ?He still has, from what I see this morning, some surface to air capabilities where he could attack an aircraft, [but] we haven?t see large scales of that after yesterday.

            ?He clearly still has the capability to attack his own people,? the chairman continued. ?We?re very focused on that and trying to ensure his military forces don?t do that.?

            http://www.defense.gov/news/newsarticle.aspx?id=63231
            "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
            -Nelson Mandela

            Comment

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