PLoS One. 2018 Sep 7;13(9):e0203521. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0203521. eCollection 2018.
Influenza infection directly alters innate IL-23 and IL-12p70 and subsequent IL-17A and IFN-γ responses to pneumococcus in vitro in human monocytes.

Loughran ST1, Power PA1, Maguire PT1, McQuaid SL1, Buchanan PJ2, Jonsdottir I3, Newman RW4, Harvey R4, Johnson PA1.
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Influenza virus is highly contagious and poses substantial public health problems due to its strong association with morbidity and mortality. Approximately 250,000-500,000 deaths are caused by seasonal influenza virus annually, and this figure increases during periods of pandemic infections. Most of these deaths are due to secondary bacterial pneumonia. Influenza-bacterial superinfection can result in hospitalisation and/or death of both patients with pre-existing lung disease or previously healthy individuals. The importance of our research is in determining that influenza and its component haemagglutinin has a direct effect on the classic pneumococcus induced pathways to IL-17A in our human ex vivo model. Our understanding of the mechanism which leaves people exposed to influenza infection during superinfection remain unresolved. This paper demonstrates that early infection of monocytes inhibits an arm of immunity crucial to bacterial clearance. Understanding this mechanism may provide alternative interventions in the case of superinfection with antimicrobial resistant strains of bacteria.

PMID: 30192848 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0203521
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