. 2021 Jan 7;13(1):E68.
doi: 10.3390/pharmaceutics13010068.
Promising Adjuvants and Platforms for Influenza Vaccine Development

Wandi Zhu 1 , Chunhong Dong 1 , Lai Wei 1 , Bao-Zhong Wang 1



Influenza is one of the major threats to public health. Current influenza vaccines cannot provide effective protection against drifted or shifted influenza strains. Researchers have considered two important strategies to develop novel influenza vaccines with improved immunogenicity and broader protective efficacy. One is applying fewer variable viral antigens, such as the haemagglutinin stalk domain. The other is including adjuvants in vaccine formulations. Adjuvants are promising and helpful boosters to promote more rapid and stronger immune responses with a dose-sparing effect. However, few adjuvants are currently licensed for human influenza vaccines, although many potential candidates are in different trials. While many advantages have been observed using adjuvants in influenza vaccine formulations, an improved understanding of the mechanisms underlying viral infection and vaccination-induced immune responses will help to develop new adjuvant candidates. In this review, we summarize the works related to adjuvants in influenza vaccine research that have been used in our studies and other laboratories. The review will provide perspectives for the utilization of adjuvants in developing next-generation and universal influenza vaccines.

Keywords: adjuvants; influenza vaccine; nanoparticles.