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Cost-effectiveness analysis of quadrivalent seasonal influenza vaccines in England

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  • Cost-effectiveness analysis of quadrivalent seasonal influenza vaccines in England

    BMC Med. 2017 Sep 8;15(1):166. doi: 10.1186/s12916-017-0932-3.
    Cost-effectiveness analysis of quadrivalent seasonal influenza vaccines in England.

    Thorrington D1, van Leeuwen E2,3, Ramsay M4, Pebody R2, Baguelin M2,5.
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    As part of the national seasonal influenza vaccination programme in England and Wales, children receive a quadrivalent vaccine offering protection against two influenza A strains and two influenza B strains. Healthy children receive a quadrivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine (QLAIV), whilst children with contraindications receive the quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (QIIV). Individuals aged younger than 65 years in the clinical risk populations and elderly individuals aged 65+ years receive either a trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIIV) offering protection from two A strains and one B strain or the QIIV at the choice of their general practitioner. The cost-effectiveness of quadrivalent vaccine programmes is an open question. The original analysis that supported the paediatric programme only considered a trivalent live attenuated vaccine (LAIV). The cost-effectiveness of the QIIV to other patients has not been established. We sought to estimate the cost-effectiveness of these programmes, establishing a maximum incremental total cost per dose of quadrivalent vaccines over trivalent vaccines.

    We used the same mathematical model as the analysis that recommended the introduction of the paediatric influenza vaccination programme. The incremental cost of the quadrivalent vaccine is the additional cost over that of the existing trivalent vaccine currently in use.

    Introducing quadrivalent vaccines can be cost-effective for all targeted groups. However, the cost-effectiveness of the programme is dependent on the choice of target cohort and the cost of the vaccines: the paediatric programme is cost-effective with an increased cost of 6.36 per dose, though an extension to clinical risk individuals younger than 65 years old and further to all elderly individuals means the maximum incremental cost is 1.84 and 0.20 per dose respectively.

    Quadrivalent influenza vaccines will bring substantial health benefits, as they are cost-effective in particular target groups.


    Cost-effectiveness; Influenza; LAIV; QALY; Quadrivalent vaccines; Vaccination

    PMID: 28882149 DOI: 10.1186/s12916-017-0932-3
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