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J Med Virol . Prophylactic antibodies inhibit spike-specific T and B cell responses after COVID-19 vaccination

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  • J Med Virol . Prophylactic antibodies inhibit spike-specific T and B cell responses after COVID-19 vaccination

    J Med Virol


    . 2024 Jul;96(7):e29778.
    doi: 10.1002/jmv.29778. Prophylactic antibodies inhibit spike-specific T and B cell responses after COVID-19 vaccination

    Henrik E Mei 1 , Axel Ronald Schulz 1 , Heike Hirseland 1 , Lisa-Marie Diekmann 1 , Elisa Habermann 2 , Alexander Ten Hagen 2 , Fredrik Albach 2 , Gerd-Rüdiger Burmester 2 , Andreas Grützkau 1 , Robert Biesen 2



    AffiliationsAbstract

    Active and passive immunization is used in high-risk patients to prevent severe courses of COVID-19, but the impact of prophylactic neutralizing antibodies on the immune reaction to the mRNA vaccines has remained enigmatic. Here we show that CD4 T and B cell responses to Spikevax booster immunization are suppressed by the therapeutic antibodies Casirivimab and Imdevimab. B cell and T cell responses were significantly induced in controls but not in antibody-treated patients. The data indicates that humoral immunity, i. e. high levels of antibodies, negatively impacts reactive immunity, resulting in blunted cellular responses upon boosting. This argues for temporal separation of vaccination efforts; with active vaccination preferably applied before prophylactic therapeutic antibody treatment.

    Keywords: COVID‐19; Casirivimab; Imdevimab; Ronapreve; SARS‐CoV‐2; active vaccination; antibody feedback; immunocompromised patients; mRNA vaccination; neutralization; nonresponders; passive immunization; rituximab.

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