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J Clin Med . Characteristics and Clinical Ocular Manifestations in Patients with Acute Corneal Graft Rejection after Receiving the COVID-19 Vaccine: A Systematic Review

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  • J Clin Med . Characteristics and Clinical Ocular Manifestations in Patients with Acute Corneal Graft Rejection after Receiving the COVID-19 Vaccine: A Systematic Review


    J Clin Med


    . 2022 Aug 2;11(15):4500.
    doi: 10.3390/jcm11154500.
    Characteristics and Clinical Ocular Manifestations in Patients with Acute Corneal Graft Rejection after Receiving the COVID-19 Vaccine: A Systematic Review


    Kenta Fujio 1 2 , Jaemyoung Sung 1 3 , Satoru Nakatani 1 , Kazuko Yamamoto 4 , Masao Iwagami 5 , Keiichi Fujimoto 1 2 , Hurramhon Shokirova 1 , Yuichi Okumura 1 2 , Yasutsugu Akasaki 1 2 , Ken Nagino 2 6 , Akie Midorikawa-Inomata 6 , Kunihiko Hirosawa 1 2 , Maria Miura 1 2 , Tianxiang Huang 1 2 , Yuki Morooka 1 2 , Mizu Kuwahara 1 2 , Akira Murakami 1 2 , Takenori Inomata 1 2 6 7



    Affiliations

    Abstract

    This study aimed to determine the characteristics and clinical ocular manifestations of acute corneal graft rejection after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination. We conducted an online search of the PubMed and EMBASE databases. Data on recipients' characteristics, corneal transplantation types, interval between vaccination and allograft rejection, clinical manifestations, and graft rejection medication were extracted. Thirteen articles on 21 patients (23 eyes) with acute corneal graft rejection after COVID-19 vaccination, published between April and December 2021, were included. The median (interquartile range) age at the onset of rejection was 68 (27-83) years. Types of transplantation included penetrating keratoplasty (12 eyes), Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (six eyes), Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (four eyes), and living-related conjunctival-limbal allograft (one eye). The interval between vaccination and rejection ranged from 1 day to 6 weeks. Corneal edema was the leading clinical manifestation (20 eyes), followed by keratic precipitates (14 eyes) and conjunctival or ciliary injection (14 eyes). Medications included frequently applied topical corticosteroids (12 eyes), followed by a combination of topical and oral corticosteroids (four eyes). In addition, the clinical characteristics of corneal allograft rejection after COVID-19 vaccination were identified. Corneal transplant recipients may require further vaccination, necessitating appropriate management and treatment.

    Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; corneal graft; corneal graft rejection; corneal transplantation; coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); immune response; systematic review; tolerance; vaccine.

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