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Low-dose mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine generates durable memory enhanced by cross-reactive T cells

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  • Low-dose mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine generates durable memory enhanced by cross-reactive T cells

    14 Sep 2021

    DOI: 10.1126/science.abj9853

    JOSE MATEUS, JENNIFER M. DAN, ZELI ZHANG, CAROLYN RYDYZNSKI MODERBACHER, MARSHALL LAMMERS, BENJAMIN GOODWIN , ALESSANDRO SETTE, SHANE CROTTY AND DANIELA WEISKOPF

    Abstract
    Vaccine-specific CD4+ T cell, CD8+ T cell, binding antibody, and neutralizing antibody responses to the 25-μg Moderna mRNA-1273 vaccine were examined over 7 months post-immunization, including multiple age groups, with a particular interest in assessing whether pre-existing cross-reactive T cell memory impacts vaccine-generated immunity. Vaccine-generated spike-specific memory CD4+ T cells 6 months post-boost were comparable in quantity and quality to COVID-19 cases, including the presence of T follicular helper cells and IFNγ-expressing cells. Spike-specific CD8+T cells were generated in 88% of subjects, with equivalent memory at 6 months post-boost compared to COVID-19 cases. Lastly, subjects with pre-existing cross-reactive CD4+ T cell memory had increased CD4+ T cell and antibody responses to the vaccine, demonstrating the biological relevance of SARS-CoV-2–cross-reactive CD4+ T cells.

    https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/science.abj9853
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