Infect Drug Resist

. 2022 Aug 12;15:4457-4466.
doi: 10.2147/IDR.S362946. eCollection 2022.
Safety and Efficacy of Antiviral Drugs for the Treatment of COVID-19: A Systematic Review

Zhenwang Nie # 1 , Tao Sun # 1 , Fangcheng Zhao 1



Objective: To investigate the efficacy and safety of antiviral drugs in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
Methods: All clinical trials of antiviral drug treatment for COVID-19 from December 2019 to December 2021 in CNKI, PubMed, Embase, Wanfang and VIP databases were searched by computer, and the results were systematically reviewed.
Results: A total of 21 studies were included, including 5 randomized controlled studies, 5 non-randomized controlled studies, 3 retrospective cohort studies, 6 retrospective case series studies, and 2 observational studies, with a total of 2118 patients. The evaluated drugs included Ridzevir, Lopinavir/Ritonavir, Jingluwa, Fapiravi, Abidor, Danorivir, and interferon α. The evaluated antiviral drugs did not show superior efficacy for COVID-19 in clinical trials. In terms of safety, particular attention needs to be paid to the gastrointestinal side effects of lopinavir/ritonavir and the serious side effects of redsivir.
Conclusion: There is no specific drug. Antiviral drugs have a greater therapeutic benefit for mild and usual patients, and in severe patients, lopinavir/ritonavir may not be effective. For critically ill patients, adefovir or more than two antiviral drugs can be used early. Antiviral drugs combined with traditional Chinese medicine treatment is effective. In view of the safety of the drug, it is necessary to consider the increase of serum uric acid caused by fapravi, the increase of bilirubin caused by abidol, and the gastrointestinal reactions of pitavir. In addition, other adverse reactions should also be noted.

Keywords: COVID-19; antiviral drugs; safety.