J Trace Elem Med Biol

. 2022 Mar 26;72:126977.
doi: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2022.126977. Online ahead of print.
Antiviral potential of nanoparticles for the treatment of Coronavirus infections

Joy Sarkar 1 , Sunandana Das 1 , Sahasrabdi Aich 2 , Prithu Bhattacharyya 1 , Krishnendu Acharya 3



Background: On 31st December 2019 in Wuhan, China, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), was acknowledged. This virus spread quickly throughout the world causing a global pandemic. The World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a pandemic disease on 11th March 2020. Since then, the whole world has come together and have developed several vaccines against this deadly virus. Similarly, several alternative searches for pandemic disease therapeutics are still ongoing. One of them has been identified as nanotechnology. It has demonstrated significant promise for detecting and inhibiting a variety of viruses, including coronaviruses. Several nanoparticles, including gold nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles, quantum dots, carbon dots, graphene oxide nanoparticles, and zinc oxide nanoparticles, have previously demonstrated remarkable antiviral activity against a diverse array of viruses.
Objective: This review aims to provide a basic and comprehensive overview of COVID-19's initial global outbreak and its mechanism of infiltration into human host cells, as well as the detailed mechanism and inhibitory effects of various nanoparticles against this virus. In addition to nanoparticles, this review focuses on the role of several antiviral drugs used against COVID-19 to date.
Conclusion: COVID-19 has severely disrupted the social and economic lives of people all over the world. Due to a lack of adequate medical facilities, countries have struggled to maintain control of the situation. Neither a drug nor a vaccine has a 100% efficacy rate. As a result, nanotechnology may be a better therapeutic alternative for this pandemic disease.

Keywords: Antiviral activity; COVID-19; Metal nanoparticles; Nanoparticles; SARS-CoV-2.