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Stem Cell Rev Rep . Physiological Relevance of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 As a Metabolic Linker and Therapeutic Implication of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in COVID-19 and Hypertension

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  • Stem Cell Rev Rep . Physiological Relevance of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 As a Metabolic Linker and Therapeutic Implication of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in COVID-19 and Hypertension


    Stem Cell Rev Rep


    . 2020 Aug 3.
    doi: 10.1007/s12015-020-10012-x. Online ahead of print.
    Physiological Relevance of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 As a Metabolic Linker and Therapeutic Implication of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in COVID-19 and Hypertension


    Sarama Saha 1 , Sasanka Chakrabarti 2 , Praveen Kumar Singh 1 , Jit Poddar 2 , Soumitra Satapathi 3 , Surendra Saini 4 , Sham S Kakar 5 , Partha Roy 6



    Affiliations

    Abstract

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus - 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a single stranded RNA virus and responsible for infecting human being. In many cases the individual may remain asymptomatic. Some recently reported studies revealed that individuals of elderly age group and with pre-existing medical conditions such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus had severe consequences, even may lead to death. However, it is not clearly delineated whether hypertension itself or associated comorbidities or antihypertensive therapy contributes to the grave prognosis of COVID-19 infections. This review is aimed to decipher the exact mechanisms involved at molecular level from existing evidence and as reported. It has been reported that SARS-CoV-2 enters into the host cell through interaction between conserved residues of viral spike protein and angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor which is highly expressed in host's cardiac and pulmonary cells and finally transmembrane protease, serine-2 (TMPRSS2), helps in priming of the surface protein. Subsequently, symptom related to multi organ involvement is primarily contributed by cytokine storm. Although various clinical trials are being conducted on renin- angiotensin- system inhibitor, till to date there is no standard treatment protocol approved for critically ill COVID-19 positive cases with pre-existing hypertension. Recently, several studies are carried out to document the safety and efficacy outcome of mesenchymal stem cell transplantation based on its immunomodulatory and regenerative properties. Therefore, identification of future novel therapeutics in the form of mesenchymal stem cell either alone or in combination with pharmacological approach could be recommended for combating SARS-CoV-2 which might be dreadful to debilitating elderly people. Graphical Abstract.

    Keywords: Angiotensin converting enzyme 2; COVID-19; Coronavirus-2; Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system; Severe acute respiratory syndrome; Spike protein; Transmembrane protease serine-2, Mesenchymal Stem Cell.

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