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ACS Infect Dis . Activation of Antiviral Host Responses against Avian Influenza Virus and Remodeling of Gut Microbiota by rLAB Vector Expressing rIL-17A in Chickens

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  • ACS Infect Dis . Activation of Antiviral Host Responses against Avian Influenza Virus and Remodeling of Gut Microbiota by rLAB Vector Expressing rIL-17A in Chickens

    ACS Infect Dis


    . 2024 Jul 6.
    doi: 10.1021/acsinfecdis.4c00377. Online ahead of print. Activation of Antiviral Host Responses against Avian Influenza Virus and Remodeling of Gut Microbiota by rLAB Vector Expressing rIL-17A in Chickens

    Sucharita Bhowmick 1 , Subhadeep Gupta 1 , Samiran Mondal 2 , Amirul Islam Mallick 1



    AffiliationsAbstract

    Low-pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) remains the most common subtype of type-A influenza virus that causes moderate to severe infection in poultry with significant zoonotic and pandemic potential. Due to high mutability, increasing drug resistance, and limited vaccine availability, the conventional means to prevent intra- or interspecies transmission of AIV is highly challenging. As an alternative to control AIV infections, cytokine-based approaches to augment antiviral host defense have gained significant attention. However, the selective application of cytokines is critical since unregulated expression of cytokines, particularly proinflammatory ones, can cause substantial tissue damage during acute phases of immune responses. Moreover, depending on the type of cytokine and its impact on intestinal microbiota, outcomes of cytokine-gut microflora interaction can have a critical effect on overall host defense against AIV infections. Our recent study demonstrated some prominent roles of chicken IL-17A (ChIL-17A) in regulating antiviral host responses against AIV infection, however, in an in vitro model. For more detailed insights into ChIL-17A function, in the present study, we investigated whether ChIL-17A-meditated elevated antiviral host responses can translate into effective immune protection against AIV infection in an in vivo system. Moreover, considering the role of gut health in fostering innate or local host responses, we further studied the contributory relationships between gut microbiota and host immunity against AIV infection in chickens. For this, we employed a recombinant lactic acid-producing bacterial (LAB) vector, Lactococcus lactis, expressing ChIL-17A and analyzed the in vivo functionality in chickens against an LPAIV (A/H9N2) infection. Our study delineates that mucosal delivery of rL. lactis expressing ChIL-17A triggers proinflammatory signaling cascades and can drive a positive shift in phylum Firmicutes, along with a marked decline in phylum Actinobacteriota and Proteobacteria, favoring effective antiviral host responses against AIV infection in chickens. We propose that ChIL-17A-mediated selective expansion of beneficial gut microbiota might form a healthy microbial community that augments the effective immune protection against AIV infections in chickens.

    Keywords: antiviral responses; gut microbiota; influenza A/H9N2 virus; interleukin 17A; lactic acid-producing bacteria.

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