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Virol J . +Efficacy of recombinant H5 vaccines delivered in ovo or day of age in commercial broilers against the 2015 U.S. H5N2 clade 2.3.4.4c highly pathogenic avian Influenza virus

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  • Virol J . +Efficacy of recombinant H5 vaccines delivered in ovo or day of age in commercial broilers against the 2015 U.S. H5N2 clade 2.3.4.4c highly pathogenic avian Influenza virus

    Virol J


    . 2023 Dec 15;20(1):298.
    doi: 10.1186/s12985-023-02254-1. Efficacy of recombinant H5 vaccines delivered in ovo or day of age in commercial broilers against the 2015 U.S. H5N2 clade 2.3.4.4c highly pathogenic avian Influenza virus

    Darrell R Kapczynski 1 , Klaudia Chrzastek 1 , Revathi Shanmugasundaram 1 , Aniko Zsak 1 , Karen Segovia 1 , Holly Sellers 2 , David L Suarez 3



    AffiliationsFree PMC article Abstract

    Background: Avian influenza is a highly contagious, agriculturally relevant disease that can severely affect the poultry industry and food supply. Eurasian-origin H5Nx highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) (clade 2.3.4.4) have been circulating globally in wild birds with spill over into commercial poultry operations. The negative impact to commercial poultry renewed interest in the development of vaccines against these viruses to control outbreaks in the U.S.
    Methods: The efficacy of three recombinant H5 vaccines delivered in ovo or day of age were evaluated in commercial broilers challenged with the 2015 U.S. H5N2 clade 2.3.4.4c HPAIV. The recombinant vaccines included an alphavirus RNA particle vaccine (RP-H5), an inactivated reverse genetics-derived (RG-H5) and recombinant HVT vaccine (rHVT-AI) expressing H5 hemagglutinin (HA) genes. In the first experiment, in ovo vaccination with RP-H5 or rHVT-AI was tested against HPAI challenge at 3 or 6 weeks of age. In a second experiment, broilers were vaccinated at 1 day of age with a dose of either 107 or 108 RP-H5, or RG-H5 (512 HA units (HAU) per dose).
    Results: In experiment one, the RP-H5 provided no protection following in ovo application, and shedding titers were similar to sham vaccinated birds. However, when the RP-H5 was delivered in ovo with a boost at 3 weeks, 95% protection was demonstrated at 6 weeks of age. The rHVT-AI vaccine demonstrated 95 and 100% protection at 3 and 6 weeks of age, respectively, of challenged broilers with reduced virus shedding compared to sham vaccinated birds. Finally, when the RP-H5 and rHVT vaccines were co-administered at one day of age, 95% protection was demonstrated with challenge at either 3 or 6 weeks age. In the second experiment, the highest protection (92%) was observed in the 108 RP-H5 vaccinated group. Significant reductions (p < 0.05) in virus shedding were observed in groups of vaccinated birds that were protected from challenge. The RG-H5 provided 62% protection from challenge. In all groups of surviving birds, antibody titers increased following challenge.
    Conclusions: Overall, these results demonstrated several strategies that could be considered to protected broiler chickens during a H5 HPAI challenge.

    Keywords: Broiler; Chicken; Highly pathogenic avian Influenza virus; Recombinant vaccine; Vaccine efficacy; Viral shedding.

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