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One Health . Determinants for the presence of avian influenza virus in live bird markets in Bangladesh: Towards an easy fix of a looming one health issue

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  • One Health . Determinants for the presence of avian influenza virus in live bird markets in Bangladesh: Towards an easy fix of a looming one health issue

    One Health


    . 2023 Oct 12:17:100643.
    doi: 10.1016/j.onehlt.2023.100643. eCollection 2023 Dec. Determinants for the presence of avian influenza virus in live bird markets in Bangladesh: Towards an easy fix of a looming one health issue

    Ariful Islam 1 2 , Mohammed Ziaur Rahman 3 , Mohammad Mahmudul Hassan 4 5 , Jonathan H Epstein 2 , Marcel Klaassen 1



    AffiliationsFree PMC article Abstract

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 endangers poultry, wildlife, and human health and is enzootic in large parts of Asia, with live bird markets (LBMs) as putative hotspots for their maintenance, amplification, and spread. To mitigate the extent of these and other avian influenza viruses (AIV) of concern, we aimed to increase our quantitative understanding of the factors determining the presence of avian influenza virus in LBM stalls. Between 2016 and 2017, we collected fecal or offal samples from 1008 stalls in 113 LBMs across the Dhaka and Rajshahi districts in Bangladesh. For each stall, samples were pooled and tested for the AIV matrix gene, followed by H5 and H9 subtyping using rRT-PCR. We detected Influenza A viral RNA in 49% of the stalls. Of the AIV positive samples, 52% and 24% were determined to be H5 and H9 viruses, respectively, which are both subtypes of considerable health concern. We used generalized linear mixed effect modelling to study AIV presence in individual stalls within LBMs as a function of 13 out of the 20 risk factors identified by FAO. We found that small and feasible improvements in cleaning and disinfection frequency, installing running water in stalls, and not mixing different breeds of chicken in the same cages had large impacts on the presence of AIV in stalls (Odds ratios 0.03-0.05). Next, cleaning vehicles used in poultry transport, not selling waterfowl with chickens in the same stall, buying stock directly from commercial farms, separating sick birds from healthy ones, and avoiding access by wild birds like house crows, also had major effects on lowering the risk of stalls having AIV (Odds ratios 0.16-0.33). These findings can be directly used in developing practical and affordable measures to reduce the prevalence of AIV in LBMs. Also, in settings with limited resources like Bangladesh, such mitigation may significantly contribute to reducing AIV circulation amongst poultry and spillover to wildlife and humans.

    Keywords: Biosecurity; H5N1; Interventions; Risk factors; Spillover; Zoonotic.

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