Vet Microbiol

. 2023 Jul 12;284:109827.
doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2023.109827. Online ahead of print. Isolation and identification of Eurasian avian-like H1N1 swine influenza virus and evaluation of their pathogenicity and immune protective effects in pigs

Ying Yang 1 , Yunfu Huang 2 , Kun Huang 3 , Yufei Zhang 3 , Xiaotong Hu 3 , Weihua Zou 2 , Chao Wu 2 , Xianfeng Hui 3 , Chengfei Li 3 , Ya Zhao 3 , Xiaomei Sun 3 , Zhong Zou 4 , Meilin Jin 5


Swine influenza (SI) is a severe disease affecting pigs, with a huge economic impact on pig farmers. Currently, available SIV vaccines do not meet the requirements for Swine influenza prevention and control, indicating the need for vaccine development using predominant strains. Here, we isolated and identified the swine influenza virus in farms and slaughterhouses in nine provinces in China to determine the most prevalent strain. A total of 8383 samples were collected between 2013 and 2022, from which 87 swine influenza virus strains were isolated. Genome sequencing identified 62 strains of the H1N1 subtype, three strains of the H1N2 subtype, and 22 strains of the H3N2 subtype. The 521# strain virus possesses the viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) and matrix (M) genes from the pdm/09 lineage, the HA, NA from the original Eurasian avian-like (EA) H1N1 lineage, and the nonstructural (NS) gene from the triple-reassortant (TR) lineage. The 431# strain was also a TR, except its M-gene was derived from the original EA H1N1 lineage. The pathogenicity of two 431# strains and one typical 521# strain was evaluated in mice, and the 431# strain exhibited higher pathogenicity. Therefore, a new 521# strain was selected for vaccine production because it is the current circulating strain. The vaccine produced using the 521# strain and pre-evaluated adjuvants was effective against the homologous H05 strain, as evidenced by the normal body temperature of vaccinated pigs and low virus titer of nasal swabs. In contrast, infection with the H05 strain significantly increased the body temperature of unvaccinated pigs and increased the virus titer of nasal swabs. Notably, vaccination with the 521#-based vaccine conferred some level of protection against the heterologous B15 strain (H3N2 subtype), thus reducing the viral load in pigs.

Keywords: 521# strains; Eurasian avian-like H1N1 virus; Inactivated vaccine; Swine influenza virus.