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Sci Rep . A case-control study of the causes of acute respiratory infection among hospitalized patients in Northeastern Laos

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  • Sci Rep . A case-control study of the causes of acute respiratory infection among hospitalized patients in Northeastern Laos


    Sci Rep


    . 2022 Jan 18;12(1):939.
    doi: 10.1038/s41598-022-04816-9.
    A case-control study of the causes of acute respiratory infection among hospitalized patients in Northeastern Laos


    Koukeo Phommasone 1 , Xaipasong Xaiyaphet 2 , Jose A Garcia-Rivera 3 , Robert D Hontz 3 , Viengmone Pathavongsa 4 , Patsalin Keomoukda 2 , Malavanh Vongsouvath 2 , Mayfong Mayxay 2 5 6 7 , Manivanh Vongsouvath 2 , Paul N Newton 2 7 , Elizabeth A Ashley 2 7 , Audrey Dubot-Pérès 2 8



    AffiliationsFree PMC article

    Abstract

    With the advent of highly sensitive real-time PCR, multiple pathogens have been identified from nasopharyngeal swabs of patients with acute respiratory infections (ARIs). However, the detection of microorganisms in the upper respiratory tract does not necessarily indicate disease causation. We conducted a matched case-control study, nested within a broader fever aetiology project, to facilitate determination of the aetiology of ARIs in hospitalised patients in Northeastern Laos. Consenting febrile patients of any age admitted to Xiengkhuang Provincial Hospital were included if they met the inclusion criteria for ARI presentation (at least one of the following: cough, rhinorrhoea, nasal congestion, sore throat, difficulty breathing, and/or abnormal chest auscultation). One healthy control for each patient, matched by sex, age, and village of residence, was recruited for the study. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from participants and tested for 33 pathogens by probe-based multiplex real-time RT-PCR (FastTrack Diagnostics Respiratory pathogen 33 kit). Attributable fraction of illness for a given microorganism was calculated by comparing results between patients and controls (= 100 * [OR - 1]/OR) (OR = odds ratio). Between 24th June 2019 and 24th June 2020, 205 consenting ARI patients and 205 matching controls were recruited. After excluding eight pairs due to age mismatch, 197 pairs were included in the analysis. Males were predominant with sex ratio 1.2:1 and children < 5 years old accounted for 59% of participants. At least one potential pathogen was detected in 173 (88%) patients and 175 (89%) controls. ARI in admitted patients were attributed to influenza B virus, influenza A virus, human metapneumovirus (HMPV), and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in 17.8%, 17.2%, 7.5%, and 6.5% of participants, respectively. SARS-CoV-2 was not detected in any cases or controls. Determining ARI aetiology in individual patients remains challenging. Among hospitalised patients with ARI symptoms presenting to a provincial hospital in Northeastern Laos, half were determined to be caused by one of several respiratory viruses, in particular influenza A virus, influenza B virus, HMPV, and RSV.


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