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A virus precipitation method for concentration & detection of avian influenza viruses from environmental water resources & its possible application in outbreak investigations

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  • A virus precipitation method for concentration & detection of avian influenza viruses from environmental water resources & its possible application in outbreak investigations


    Indian J Med Res. 2019 Dec;150(6):612-619. doi: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1697_18. A virus precipitation method for concentration & detection of avian influenza viruses from environmental water resources & its possible application in outbreak investigations.

    Pawar SD1, Keng SS2, Tare DS2, Thormothe AL2, Sapkal GN3, Anukumar B4, Lole KS5, Mullick J2, Mourya DT6.
    Author information

    Abstract

    Background & objectives:

    Avian influenza (AI) viruses have been a major cause of public health concern. Wild migratory birds and contaminated environmental sources such as waterbodies soiled with bird droppings play a significant role in the transmission of AI viruses. The objective of the present study was to develop a sensitive and user-friendly method for the concentration and detection of AI viruses from environmental water sources.
    Methods:

    Municipal potable water, surface water from reservoirs and sea were spiked with low pathogenic AI viruses. To concentrate the viruses by precipitation, a combination of potassium aluminium sulphate with milk powder was used. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed for virus detection, and the results were compared with a virus concentration method using erythrocytes. Drinking water specimens from poultry markets were also tested for the presence of AI viruses.
    Results:

    A minimum of 101.0 EID50(50% egg infectious dose)/ml spiked H5N1 and 101.7 EID50/ml spiked H9N2 viruses were detected from spiked potable water; 101.0 and 102.0 EID50/ml spiked H5N1 virus was detected from surface water and seawater samples, respectively. The present method was more sensitive than the erythrocyte-binding method as approximately 10-fold higher infectious virus titres were obtained. AI H9N2 viruses were detected and isolated from water from local poultry markets, using this method.
    Interpretation & conclusions:

    Viability and recovery of the spiked viruses were not affected by precipitation. The present method may be suitable for the detection of AI viruses from different environmental water sources and can also be applied during outbreak investigations.


    KEYWORDS:

    Avian influenza virus; detection; environmental water; outbreak; surveillance; virus precipitation

    PMID: 32048625 DOI: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1697_18

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