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Pathological changes, shedding pattern and cytokines responses in chicks infected with avian influenza-H9N2 and/or infectious bronchitis viruses

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  • Pathological changes, shedding pattern and cytokines responses in chicks infected with avian influenza-H9N2 and/or infectious bronchitis viruses

    Virusdisease. 2019 Jun;30(2):279-287. doi: 10.1007/s13337-018-00506-1. Epub 2019 Jan 12.
    Pathological changes, shedding pattern and cytokines responses in chicks infected with avian influenza-H9N2 and/or infectious bronchitis viruses.

    Mahana O1, Arafa AS1, Erfan A1, Hussein HA2, Shalaby MA2.
    Author information

    Abstract

    Avian influenza H9N2 (AIV-H9N2) and Infectious bronchitis (IB) viruses are the most commonly isolated viruses from poultry flocks suffering from respiratory signs with mortalities. The outcome of co-infection with both viruses hasn't been yet well understood. In this study, eighty 1-day-old specific pathogen free chicks were divided into four distinct groups. Group 1 remained uninfected as negative control group; groups 2, 3 and 4 were inoculated with either AIV-H9N2 or IBV or co infected with AIV-H9N2 followed by IBV three days post inoculation respectively. Chicks were monitored for clinical and pathological changes, virus shedding and both Interleukin-6 (IL6) and Interferon gamma (IFNγ) cytokines immune responses. Clinical signs varied from mild to moderate respiratory signs in all challenged groups but were more severe in group 4 with mortalities in groups 3 and 4. Tracheal shedding of both viruses washigher in group 4 than group 2 and 3. Mean AIV-H9 virus titer in lung and kidney was higher in group 4 than group 2 in all time points. IFNγ mRNA gene expression in lung was significantly lower in groups3 and 4. In conclusion, this study reports that co-infection of chicks with both viruses enhances the pathogenicity, increases both viruses shedding and extend AIV-H9 replication with impairment of IFNγ stimulation in lung.


    KEYWORDS:

    Avian influenza; Co-infection; Cytokines; H9N2; IBV

    PMID: 31179367 PMCID: PMC6531570 [Available on 2020-06-01] DOI: 10.1007/s13337-018-00506-1
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