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Highly pathogenic avian influenza A/H5N1 Clade 2.3.2.1c virus in poultry in Cameroon, 2016-2017

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  • Highly pathogenic avian influenza A/H5N1 Clade 2.3.2.1c virus in poultry in Cameroon, 2016-2017

    Avian Pathol. 2018 Jul 9:1-51. doi: 10.1080/03079457.2018.1492087. [Epub ahead of print]
    Highly pathogenic avian influenza A/H5N1 Clade 2.3.2.1c virus in poultry in Cameroon, 2016-2017.

    Wade A1,2, Ta´ga2, Fouda MA3, MaiMoussa A4, Jean Marc FK2, Njouom R5, Vernet MA5, Djonwe G2, Mballa E3, Kazi JP1, Nenkam R1, Poueme Namegni R1, Bamanga H1, Casimir NKM2, Lebreton M6, Nwobegahay J7, Fusaro A8, Zecchin B8, Milani A8, Gaston M2, Chepnda VR9, Dickmu Jumbo S1, Souley A1, Aboubakar Y1, Fotso Kamnga Z2, Couo K2, Atkam H2, Dauphin G10, Wiersma L10, Bebay C10,11, Nzietchueng S12, Vincent T13, Biaou C10, Mbacham W14, Monne I8, Cattoli G15.
    Author information

    Abstract

    In May 2016, highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) of the subtype A/H5N1 was detected in Cameroon in an industrial poultry farm at Mvog-Betsi, Yaounde (Centre region), with a recorded sudden increase of deaths among chickens, and an overall mortality rate of 75%. The virus spread further and caused new outbreaks in some parts of the country. In total, 21 outbreaks were confirmed from May 2016 to March 2017 (6 in the Centre, 6 in the West, 8 in the South and 1 in the Adamaoua regions). This resulted in an estimated total loss of 138,252 birds (44,451 death due to infection and 93,801 stamped out). Only domestic birds (chicken, ducks and geese) were affected both in farms as well as in poultry markets. The outbreaks occurred in three waves, the first from May-June 2016, the second in September 2016 and last wave in March 2017. The topology of the phylogeny based on the HA gene segment indicated that the causative H5N1 viruses fall within the genetic clade 2.3.2.1c, sharing a same group with the A/H5N1 viruses collected in Niger in 2015 and 2016. More importantly, the gene constellation of four representative viruses showed evidence of H5N1/H9N2 intra-clade reassortment. Additional epidemiological and genetic data from affected countries in West Africa are needed to better trace the origin, spread and evolution of A/H5N1 in Cameroon.


    KEYWORDS:

    Cameroon; HPAI-H5N1; full genome; intra-clade reassortment; outbreaks

    PMID: 29985640 DOI: 10.1080/03079457.2018.1492087
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