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Epidemiological features of prevalent influenza A viruses in children with influenza-like illness during the 2004-2017 season in Beijing

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  • Epidemiological features of prevalent influenza A viruses in children with influenza-like illness during the 2004-2017 season in Beijing

    Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi. 2018 Jun 2;56(6):429-434. doi: 10.3760/cma.j.issn.0578-1310.2018.06.005.
    [Epidemiological features of prevalent influenza A viruses in children with influenza-like illness during the 2004-2017 season in Beijing].

    [Article in Chinese; Abstract available in Chinese from the publisher]
    Wang F1, Qian Y, Deng J, Sun Y, Zhao LQ, Tian R, Zhu RN.
    Author information

    Abstract

    in English, Chinese
    Objective: To analyze and compare the epidemiological features of prevalent influenza A viruses in children in Beijing during 13 consecutive surveillance seasons from 2004 to 2017. Methods: This was a repeated cross section study. Throat swabs were collected weekly from children with influenza-like illnesses (ILI) who presented to the outpatient/emergency department of Children's Hospital, Capital Institute of Pediatrics during the period from September, 2004 to August, 2017. All of the specimens were inoculated into Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells to isolate influenza viruses followed by identifying different types of influenza viruses with reference antisera by hemagglutination-inhibition assay. Descriptive statistics, t test and chi-square test were used to analyze the characteristics of prevalent influenza and characteristics of children infected with different types of influenza viruses. Results: Out of 10 984 specimens from ILI tested for influenza viruses, 1 052 (9.6%) were positive for influenza A viruses, and the positive rate was higher than that of influenza B viruses (6.7%, 741/10 984). Out of 1 052 cases positive for influenza A viruses, 70 cases of seasonal H1N1, 302 cases of 2 009 pandemic H1N1 and 680 cases of H3N2 were identified. The mean age of children with influenza A was (4.22.9) years, in whom 55.5% (584/1 052) were male. The mean age of children infected with seasonal H1N1, 2009 pandemic H1N1 and H3N2 was (4.62.1) , (4.33.1) and (4.22.9) years, respectively. There was no significant difference in the mean age among children infected with different subtypes of influenza A viruses (seasonal H1N1 vs. H3N2: t=1.139, P=0.255; 2009 pandemic H1N1 vs. H3N2: t=0.631, P=0.528; seasonal H1N1 vs. 2009 pandemic H1N1: t=0.720, P=0.472), while the mean age of children with influenza B was higher than that of the patients with influenza A ((5.22.7) vs. (4.22.9) years, t=7.120, P=0.000). The infection rate of influenza A in children with each age group was significantly different from that of influenza B. The infection rate of 2009 pandemic H1N1 and H3N2 increased with age, except for the patients of 0-6 months. Meanwhile, the infection rate of H3N2 in children aged 6 months to 12 years was higher than that of seasonal H1N1 and 2009 pandemic H1N1 (all P<0.05). The influenza A epidemic peaked earlier than that of influenza B when the positive rate of influenza A was higher than that of influenza B, and vice versa. After 2009, circulating strain was substituted by 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus with higher positive rate, while previous seasonal H1N1 had not been detected. The 2009 pandemic H1N1 circulated at high level in two consecutive seasons, which was followed by low level in next season. H3N2 epidemic peaked mostly in winter and spring each year, however, the epidemic wave of H3N2 with high virulence occurred so early in the summer in the year of 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Conclusions: The characteristics of prevalent influenza A viruses in children were different among 13 surveillance seasons from 2004 to 2017 in Beijing. The 2009 pandemic H1N1 and H3N2 became the predominant strains of influenza A virus.


    KEYWORDS:

    Child; Epidemiologic study characteristics as topic; Influenza A virus; Virus isolation

    PMID: 29886605
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