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Comparison of epidemiological characteristics of human infection with avian influenza A (H5N1) virus in five countries of Asia and Africa

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  • Comparison of epidemiological characteristics of human infection with avian influenza A (H5N1) virus in five countries of Asia and Africa

    Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2018 Jun 6;52(6):661-667. doi: 10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-9624.2018.06.017.
    [Comparison of epidemiological characteristics of human infection with avian influenza A (H5N1) virus in five countries of Asia and Africa].

    [Article in Chinese; Abstract available in Chinese from the publisher]
    Jiang H1, Qin Y, Zheng JD, Peng ZB, Feng LZ, Wang W, Lai SJ, Yu HJ.
    Author information

    Abstract

    in English, Chinese
    Objective: To understand characteristics of demographic, seasonal and spatial distribution of H5N1 cases in major countries of Asia (Indonesia, Cambodia, Vietnam, China) and Africa (Egypt). Methods: Through searching public data resource and published papers, we collected cases information in five countries from May 1st, 1997 to November 6th, 2017, including general characteristics, diagnosis, onset and exposure history, etc. Different characteristics of survived and death cases in different countries were described and χ(2) test was used to compare the differences among death cases and odds ratio (OR) and 95%CI value was used to compare death risk in different countries. Results: A total of 856 cases were reported in five countries with Egypt had the most cases (44.3%). The highest number of cases were reported in 2015 (18.3%). 53% cases were reported from January to March, and 96.1% of cases had the history of poultry exposure. 64.2% (43 cases) cases in China had live poultry market exposure, but the sick/dead poultry exposure was the major exposure for cases in other four countries. 452 death cases were reported in five countries, and the fatality rate was 52.8%. With Egypt as the reference group, the highest death risk was seen in Indonesia (OR (95%CI): 11.52 (7.46-17.77)), followed by Cambodia (OR (95%CI): 4.27(2.37-7.69)) and China (OR (95%CI): 2.87 (1.73-4.74)). The age distribution of death cases among 5 countries was statistically significant, and the highest fatality rate was in 15-54 years group in Egypt (83.6%, 102 cases), while in Cambodia the highest fatality rate was in 0-14 years group (76.9%, 30 cases). The highest number of deaths were reported in 2006, and 48.3% were reported from January to March. There was difference in exposure routes among 5 countries (χ(2)=43.85, P=0.001), 63.2% (24 cases) of the death cases in China had live poultry market exposure. 92.9% (79 cases), 83.3% (40 cases) and 100.0% (38 cases) death cases in Indonesia, Vietnam and Camodia had sick/dead poultry exposure, respectively;and 81.6% (31 cases) of the death cases in Egypt had backyard poultry exposure. Conclusion: The geographical distribution, seasonal age, gender, exposure matter and outcome of H5N1 cases in five countries were different.


    KEYWORDS:

    Africa; Asia; Influenza A virus, H5N1 subtype; Influenza in birds

    PMID: 29886690
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