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Assessment of hygienic conditions of live bird markets on avian influenza in Chittagong metro, Bangladesh

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  • Assessment of hygienic conditions of live bird markets on avian influenza in Chittagong metro, Bangladesh

    Prev Vet Med. 2017 Jul 1;142:7-15. doi: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2017.04.009. Epub 2017 Apr 30.
    Assessment of hygienic conditions of live bird markets on avian influenza in Chittagong metro, Bangladesh.

    Sayeed MA1, Smallwood C2, Imam T1, Mahmud R1, Hasan RB1, Hasan M3, Anwer MS2, Rashid MH1, Hoque MA4.
    Author information

    Abstract

    Live Bird Markets (LBMs) in Asian countries are considered as hubs for the spread and maintenance of different infectious diseases. In Bangladesh, LBMs are the major source of live and dressed poultry to consumers and until now only a few studies have been conducted targeting infectious agent status such as avian influenza virus (AIV) prevalence of LBMs in Bangladesh. Therefore, a cross sectional study was conducted using all 40 LBMs within the Chittagong Metropolitan Area (CMA) of Bangladesh targeting demographic information and hygienic status of LBMs in concurrence with AIV prevalence and its subtype distribution, as well as the associated risk factors for AIV. Pooled environmental swab samples were collected from 2 to 9 different sites per stall, with epidemiological data being obtained from a total of 290 stalls across 40 LBMs. The samples were evaluated by Real Time Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. The prevalence of AIV was 40% (95% CI: 20-60%; N=40) at a LBM level followed by 20.3% (CI: 10-30%, N=290) at a stall level. Specifically, the prevalence of H5, H7 and H9 subtypes at stall level were 2.8% (95% CI: 1-5%), 0% (CI: 0-1.3%) and 3.1% (CI: 1-6%), respectively. Generalized Estimating Equation model identified that the type of species sold (OR=2.5: Chicken and non-duck species versus Duck with other species), bird holding areas (OR=1.9: Cage versus Floor) and Hygienic score (OR=3.1: Score 3 or more versus score less than 3) as potential risk factors for the detection of AIV at stall level. These results suggest that housing chickens and ducks together in the stalls, birds kept on floors, and lack of adequate hygienic measures of the stall were the crucial factors for spreading AIV. This research outcome could be used to develop a proof-based program concerning environmental sanitation along with development of an effective surveillance system to reduce the AIV transmission through LBMs in Bangladesh.
    Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    KEYWORDS:

    Avian influenza; Chittagong; Hygiene; Live bird market; Prevalence

    PMID: 28606367 DOI: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2017.04.009
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