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Seasonality of pathogens causing community-acquired pneumonia

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  • Seasonality of pathogens causing community-acquired pneumonia

    Respirology. 2017 Jan 17. doi: 10.1111/resp.12978. [Epub ahead of print]
    Seasonality of pathogens causing community-acquired pneumonia.

    Cilloniz C1,2, Ewig S3, Gabarrus A1,2, Ferrer M1,2, Puig de la Bella Casa J4, Mensa J5, Torres A1,2.
    Author information

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:

    Seasonal distribution of microbial aetiology in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) may add important information both for epidemiologists and clinicians. We investigate the seasonal distribution of microbial aetiology in CAP.
    METHODS:

    This prospective observational study was carried out in the Hospital Clinic of Barcelona, Spain (January 2003-December 2014).
    RESULTS:

    We studied 4431 patients with CAP, of whom 2689 (61%) were males. Microbial aetiology was identified in 1756 patients (40%). CAP was most frequent in winter (34%) but two-third of patients with CAP presented in other seasons. Seasonal variations included Streptococcus pneumoniae (winter 21% vs spring 17% vs summer 14% vs autumn 13%, overall P < 0.001). Influenza viruses were most prevalent in autumn (6%) and winter (5%) compared with spring (3%) and summer (1%) (overall P < 0.001). Legionella pneumophila was most frequent in autumn (4%) and summer (4%) compared with spring (2%) and winter (1%) (overall P < 0.001). Incidence of polymicrobial pneumonia also differed between seasons (winter 7% vs spring 5% vs summer 3% vs autumn 6%, overall P = 0.001). We observed a significant correlation between the lowest seasonal average temperature and polymicrobial pneumonia, pneumococcal pneumonia, and influenza viruses; conversely, L. pneumophila was more common when temperatures were higher.
    CONCLUSION:

    CAP should not be regarded as a seasonal disease but occurs throughout all seasons. However, S. pneumoniae, influenza viruses, polymicrobial pneumonia and L. pneumophila are clearly subject to seasonal variations.
    ? 2017 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.


    KEYWORDS:

    community-acquired pneumonia; microbial aetiology; season; seasonality

    PMID: 28093834 DOI: 10.1111/resp.12978
    [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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