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Identification of the progenitors of Indonesia and Vietnam avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses from southern China

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  • Identification of the progenitors of Indonesia and Vietnam avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses from southern China

    Identification of the progenitors of Indonesia and Vietnam avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses from southern China

    <nobr>J. Wang,</nobr> <nobr>D. Vijaykrishna,</nobr> <nobr>L. Duan,</nobr> <nobr>J. Bahl,</nobr> <nobr>J. X. Zhang,</nobr> <nobr>R. G. Webster,</nobr> <nobr>J. S.M. Peiris,</nobr> <nobr>H. Chen,</nobr> <nobr>Gavin J. D. Smith<sup>*</sup>,</nobr> and <nobr>Y. Guan<sup>*</sup></nobr> International Institute of Infection and Immunity, Shantou University, Shantou, Guangdong 515031, China; State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Department of Microbiology, The University of Hong Kong, Faculty of Medicine Building, 21 Sassoon Road, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR, China; Virology Division, Department of Infectious Diseases, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38015, USA


    <sup>*</sup> To whom correspondence should be addressed. Email: gjsmith@hkucc.hku.hk<script type="text/javascript"><!-- var u = "gjsmith", d = "hkucc.hku.hk"; document.getElementById("em0").innerHTML = '<a href="mailto:' + u + '@' + d + '">' + u + '@' + d + '<\/a>'//--></script>. yguan@hkucc.hku.hk<script type="text/javascript"><!-- var u = "yguan", d = "hkucc.hku.hk"; document.getElementById("em1").innerHTML = '<a href="mailto:' + u + '@' + d + '">' + u + '@' + d + '<\/a>'//--></script>.
    <!-- null -->
    <table bgcolor="#e1e1e1" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="100%"> <tbody><tr><td align="left" bgcolor="#ffffff" valign="middle" width="5%"></td> <th align="left" valign="middle" width="95%"> Abstract</th></tr></tbody></table>
    The transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI)<sup> </sup>H5N1 virus to Southeast Asian countries triggered the first<sup> </sup>major outbreak and transmission wave in late 2003, accelerating<sup> </sup>the pandemic threat to the world. Due to the lack of influenza<sup> </sup>surveillance prior to these outbreaks, the genetic diversity<sup> </sup>and the transmission pathways of H5N1 viruses from this period<sup> </sup>remain undefined. To determine the possible source of the wave<sup> </sup>1 H5N1 viruses we recently conducted further sequencing and<sup> </sup>analysis of samples collected in live-poultry markets from Guangdong,<sup> </sup>Hunan and Yunnan in southern China from 2001 to 2004. Phylogenetic<sup> </sup>analysis of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of 73<sup> </sup>H5N1 isolates from this period revealed a greater genetic diversity<sup> </sup>in southern China than previously reported. Moreover, results<sup> </sup>show that eight viruses isolated from Yunnan in 2002/2003 were<sup> </sup>most closely related to the Clade 1 virus sublineage from Vietnam,<sup> </sup>Thailand and Malaysia, while two viruses from Hunan in 2002/2003<sup> </sup>were most closely related to viruses from Indonesia (Clade 2.1).<sup> </sup>Further phylogenetic analyses of the six internal genes showed<sup> </sup>that all 10 of those viruses maintained similar phylogenetic<sup> </sup>relationships as the surface genes. The 10 progenitor viruses<sup> </sup>were genotype Z and shared high similarity (99%) with their<sup> </sup>corresponding descendent viruses in most gene segments. These<sup> </sup>results suggest a direct transmission link for H5N1 viruses<sup> </sup>between Yunnan and Vietnam and also between Hunan and Indonesia<sup> </sup>during 2002/2003. Poultry trade may be responsible for virus<sup> </sup>introduction to Vietnam, while the transmission route from Hunan<sup> </sup>to Indonesia remains unclear.








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