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Emerg Inf Dis. H5N1 Outbreaks and Enzootic Influenza

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  • Emerg Inf Dis. H5N1 Outbreaks and Enzootic Influenza

    <table border="0" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" width="100%"><tbody><tr><td width="100%"> H5N1 Outbreaks and Enzootic Influenza

    Robert G. Webster,*? Malik Peiris,?? Honglin Chen,?? and Yi Guan??
    *St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, USA; ?University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, SAR, China; and ?Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong, China

    Citation: Webster RG, Peiris M, Chen H, Guan Y. H5N1 outbreaks and enzootic influenza. Emerg Infect Dis [serial on the Internet]. 2006 Jan. Available from <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="98%"><tbody><tr><td bgcolor="#cccccc" width="140">
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    Ongoing outbreaks of H5N1 avian influenza in migratory waterfowl, domestic poultry, and humans in Asia during the summer of 2005 present a continuing, protean pandemic threat. We review the zoonotic source of highly pathogenic H5N1 viruses and their genesis from their natural reservoirs. The acquisition of novel traits, including lethality to waterfowl, ferrets, felids, and humans, indicates an expanding host range. The natural selection of nonpathogenic viruses from heterogeneous subpopulations cocirculating in ducks contributes to the spread of H5N1 in Asia. Transmission of highly pathogenic H5N1 from domestic poultry back to migratory waterfowl in western China has increased the geographic spread. The spread of H5N1 and its likely reintroduction to domestic poultry increase the need for good agricultural vaccines. In fact, the root cause of the continuing H5N1 pandemic threat may be the way the pathogenicity of H5N1 viruses is masked by cocirculating influenza viruses or bad agricultural vaccines.

    Full article at:

    Distribution and migration routes of bar-headed geese
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    </td><td width="100%">Figure 2. Migration routes of Asian birds. A) Distribution and migration routes of bar-headed geese (courtesy of P. Leader). B) The Asia-Pacific region contains >240 species of migratory birds. The 3 flyways run primarily in a north-south direction, overlapping and extending from Australia/New Zealand to India, Central Asia, and Siberia. The outbreak of highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 in migratory waterfowl at Qinghai Lake, China, affected primarily bar-headed geese (Anser indicus); however, other species, including gulls and ducks, were affected (16,17). The outbreak started in early May 2005, and by June >5,000 birds had died. The birds exhibited neurologic signs, inability to stand, diarrhea, and death. Systemic infection was detected in all organs tested. C) Bar-headed goose infected with HP H5N1 influenza virus. D) Immunostain of goose pancreas, using H5 monoclonal antibodies (magnification ?400). (C and D, courtesy of H. Chen). Countries shown in red have had outbreaks of HP H5N1 since 2004. The geographic range of H5N1 may be extended by bar-headed geese or by ducks that are less susceptible to lethal infection.
    Last edited by Laidback Al; February 6, 2011, 01:14 AM. Reason: added citation

  • #2
    Re: Distribution and migration routes of bar-headed geese

    interesting article about Bar-headed Goose;

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