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Arch Clin Neuropsychol . Neurocognitive Impairment in Long COVID: A Systematic Review

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  • Arch Clin Neuropsychol . Neurocognitive Impairment in Long COVID: A Systematic Review

    Arch Clin Neuropsychol

    . 2024 Jun 8:acae042.
    doi: 10.1093/arclin/acae042. Online ahead of print. Neurocognitive Impairment in Long COVID: A Systematic Review

    Eugenia Panagea 1 , Lambros Messinis 1 2 , Maria Christina Petri 1 , Ioannis Liampas 3 , Emmanouil Anyfantis 4 , Grigorios Nasios 4 , Panayiotis Patrikelis 1 , Mary Kosmidis 1


    Objective: Although Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is primarily a respiratory infectious disease, it has also been associated with a wide range of other clinical manifestations. It is widely accepted in the scientific community that many patients after recovery continue to experience COVID-19-related symptoms, including cognitive impairment. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the cognitive profile of patients with long-COVID syndrome.
    Methods: A systematic search of empirical studies was conducted through the PubMed/Medline and Scopus electronic databases. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies published between 2020 and 2023 were included.
    Results: Of the 516 studies assessed for eligibility, 36 studies met the inclusion criteria. All included studies support the presence of persistent cognitive changes after COVID-19 disease. Executive function, memory, attention, and processing speed appear to be the cognitive domains that are predominantly associated with long-COVID syndrome, whereas language is an area that has not been sufficiently investigated.
    Conclusions: In this review, the high frequency of cognitive impairment after COVID-19 is evident. If we consider that cognitive functioning affects our ability to live independently and is a key determinant of our quality of life, it is imperative to precisely define those factors that may induce cognitive impairment in COVID-19 survivors, with the ultimate goal of early diagnosis of cognitive changes and, consequently, the development of targeted rehabilitation interventions to address them.

    Keywords: Language; Long COVID; Neurocognitive impairment.