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BMC Cardiovasc Disord . Determinants of mortality in hypertensive patients admitted with COVID-19: a single-centre retrospective study at a tertiary hospital in South Africa

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  • BMC Cardiovasc Disord . Determinants of mortality in hypertensive patients admitted with COVID-19: a single-centre retrospective study at a tertiary hospital in South Africa

    BMC Cardiovasc Disord


    . 2024 Jun 10;24(1):298.
    doi: 10.1186/s12872-024-03964-2. Determinants of mortality in hypertensive patients admitted with COVID-19: a single-centre retrospective study at a tertiary hospital in South Africa

    Ahmed Sameer Ikram 1 , Somasundram Pillay 2



    AffiliationsAbstract

    Background: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has significantly impacted global health, with successive outbreaks leading to substantial morbidity and mortality. Hypertension, a leading cause of cardiovascular disease globally, has been identified as a critical comorbidity in patients with severe COVID-19, exacerbating the risk of adverse outcomes. This study aimed to elucidate the impact of hypertension on COVID-19 outcomes within the South African context.
    Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted at King Edward VIII Hospital, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, encompassing patients aged 13 years and above admitted with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection between June 2020 and December 2021. The study investigated the association between hypertension and COVID-19 outcomes, analysing demographic, clinical, and laboratory data. Statistical analysis involved univariate and multivariate logistic regression to identify predictors of mortality among the hypertensive cohort.
    Results: The study included 420 participants-encompassing 205 with hypertension. Hypertensive patients demonstrated significantly greater requirements for oxygen and steroid therapy (p < 0.001), as well as higher mortality rates (44.88%, p < 0.001)) compared to their non-hypertensive counterparts. Key findings demonstrated that a lower oxygen saturation (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.934, p = 0.006), higher pulse pressure (aOR 1.046, p = 0.021), elevated CRP (aOR 1.007, p = 0.004) and the necessity for mechanical ventilation (aOR 5.165, p = 0.004) were independent risk factors for mortality in hypertensive COVID-19 patients. Notably, the study highlighted the pronounced impact of hypertension-mediated organ damage (HMOD) on patient outcomes, with ischemic heart disease being significantly associated with increased mortality (aOR 8.712, p = 0.033).
    Conclusion: Hypertension significantly exacerbates the severity and mortality risk of COVID-19 in the South African setting, underscoring the need for early identification and targeted management of hypertensive patients. This study contributes to the understanding of the interplay between hypertension and COVID-19 outcomes, emphasising the importance of considering comorbidities in the management and treatment strategies for COVID-19. Enhanced pandemic preparedness and healthcare resource allocation are crucial to mitigate the compounded risk presented by these concurrent health crises.

    Keywords: COVID-19; Hypertension; Hypertension-mediated organ damage (HMOD); Mortality; Risk factors; South Africa.

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