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J Natl Med Assoc . Effects of race on the outcome of COVID-19 in hospitalized patients

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  • J Natl Med Assoc . Effects of race on the outcome of COVID-19 in hospitalized patients

    J Natl Med Assoc

    . 2022 Jan 7;S0027-9684(21)00223-6.
    doi: 10.1016/j.jnma.2021.12.002. Online ahead of print.
    Effects of race on the outcome of COVID-19 in hospitalized patients

    Getahun Abate 1 , Aniruddh Kapoor 2 , Edward Charbek 2 , Bryan Beck 2 , Qian Wang 2 , Grace C Wang 2 , Mackenzie Steck 2 , Jason Zoglman 2 , Robin R Chambeg 3 , Sharon Frey 2 , Daniel F Hoft 2 , Timothy L Wiemken 2



    Background and aims: Recent reports indicate that African Americans have higher mortality rates from SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) compared to Caucasians, with more marked differences in the Midwest region of the US. This study was performed to study differences in COVID-19 related mortality and hospital length of stay (LOS) between African Americans and Caucasians in Midwest setting, and identify factors associated with mortality and LOS.
    Methods: Data were collected from the electronic health records (EHR) of patients admitted to hospitals in Midwest region of the US. EHR of 471 COVID-19 patients were reviewed.
    Results: Approximately 63% were African Americans and 34% Caucasians. One hundred sixteen variables were tested. There was no significant difference in hospital mortality between African Americans and Caucasians (OR 1, 95% CI 0.48-1.94). Older age, Chronic kidney disease, mental status change, mechanical ventilation, vasopressor support, high neutrophil count, elevated AST and ALT, high lung involvement severity score and elevated CRP were associated with mortality in a univariate analysis (P < 0.05). Multivariable modeling indicated that mechanical ventilation was the only factor that predicted mortality (OR 6, 95% CI: 2.94-12.48). The LOS did not differ in African Americans and Caucasians. The use of oxygen via high flow nasal cannula (Survival Estimate 1.6, 95% CI: 1.20-2.26), low estimated glomerular filtration rate (Survival Estimate 1.4, 95% CI: 1.05-1.82) and mechanical ventilation (Survival Estimate 3.5, 95% CI: 2.72-4.37) were predictors of LOS.
    Conclusion: This study performed in Midwest setting in the US showed that race did not affect in-hospital mortality and LOS. Our analysis demonstrated new predictors of LOS.

    Keywords: COVID-19; Mortality; Outcomes, Length of hospital stay.