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Arch Gynecol Obstet . Pregnant women and infants against the infection risk of COVID-19: a review of prenatal and postnatal symptoms, clinical diagnosis, adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes, and available treatments

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  • Arch Gynecol Obstet . Pregnant women and infants against the infection risk of COVID-19: a review of prenatal and postnatal symptoms, clinical diagnosis, adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes, and available treatments


    Arch Gynecol Obstet


    . 2021 Nov 29.
    doi: 10.1007/s00404-021-06325-y. Online ahead of print.
    Pregnant women and infants against the infection risk of COVID-19: a review of prenatal and postnatal symptoms, clinical diagnosis, adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes, and available treatments


    Leila Khedmat 1 , Pegah Mohaghegh 2 , Maryam Veysizadeh 3 , Azadeh Hosseinkhani 4 , Sanaz Fayazi 4 , Monirsadat Mirzadeh 5



    Affiliations

    Abstract

    Background: The establishment of a risk-appropriate care approach for pregnant women and newborn infants under the COVID-19 pneumonia is vital to prevent the main pregnancy complications.
    Objectives and design: This study reviewed the vertical transmission (VT) potential of COVID-19 pneumonia in pregnant women. Key-related symptoms and adverse clinical outcomes for mothers and infants before and after childbirth were summarized. Some practical therapies and preventive health solutions were also proposed.
    Results: There was a high susceptibility in pregnant women to COVID-19 infection, especially in the third trimester of pregnancy. The most common symptoms in 22-40-year-old patients infected with COVID-19 were fever (87.6%), cough (52.3%), dyspnea (27.6%), fatigue (22.4%), sore throat (13.5%), malaise (9.4%), and diarrhea (3.4%), respectively. The viral infection led to an increase in preterm labor and cesarean delivery without any intrauterine infection and severe neonatal asphyxia. No infection in the newborn infants was reported despite a high risk of the VT phenomenon. The most important therapies were the reception of antiviral and antibiotic drugs, oxygenation therapy, psychological interventions, and food supplements with health-promoting effects. The best proposed medical strategies to control the COVID-19 infection were bi-monthly screening and following-up the mothers' and fetuses' health, not using the potent broad-spectrum antibiotics and corticosteroids, providing the delivery room with negative pressure for emergency cesarean section, and the immediate isolation of newborns after childbirth without direct breastfeeding.
    Conclusion: Babies with respiratory problems may be born to some mothers with COVID-19, who have weak immune systems. Thus, the virus transmission cycle should be disrupted to prevent adverse maternal and fetal outcomes by integrating individual health guidelines, efficient medical care therapies, and hospital preventive practices.

    Keywords: 2019‚ÄźnCoV infection; Antiviral therapy; Cesarean; Clinical diagnosis; Computed tomography scan; Health management; Neonates; Novel coronavirus; Postnatal symptoms; Pregnancy outcome.

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