BMC Gastroenterol

. 2021 Oct 11;21(1):370.
doi: 10.1186/s12876-021-01939-7.
Intriguing findings of liver fibrosis following COVID-19

Oksana Kolesova 1 2 , Ieva Vanaga 3 4 5 , Sniedze Laivacuma 3 5 , Aleksejs Derovs 3 , Aleksandrs Kolesovs 3 6 , Maija Radzina 7 8 9 , Ardis Platkajis 10 , Jelena Eglite 4 , Elvira Hagina 4 , Seda Arutjunana 5 , Davis Simanis Putrins 9 , Jelena Storozenko 3 11 , Baiba Rozentale 5 12 , Ludmila Viksna 3 5



Background: Studies on a new coronavirus disease (COVID-19) show the elevation of liver enzymes and liver fibrosis index (FIB-4) independently on pre-existing liver diseases. It points to increased liver fibrogenesis during acute COVID-19 with possible long-term consequences. This study aimed to assess liver fibrosis in COVID-19 patients by serum hyaluronic acid (HA) and FIB-4.
Methods: The study included the acute COVID-19 group (66 patients, 50% females, mean age 58.3 ± 14.6), the post-COVID group (58 patients in 3-6 months after the recovery, 47% females, mean age 41.2 ± 13.4), and a control group (17 people, 47% females, mean age 42.8 ± 11.0). Ultrasound elastography was performed in the post-COVID and control groups.
Results: Sixty-five percent of the acute COVID-19 group had increased FIB-4 (> 1.45), and 38% of patients had FIB-4 ≥ 3.25. After matching by demographics, 52% of acute COVID-19 and 5% of the post-COVID group had FIB-4 > 1.45, and 29% and 2% of patients had FIB-4 ≥ 3.25, respectively. Increased serum HA (≥ 75 ng/ml) was observed in 54% of the acute COVID-19 and 15% of the post-COVID group. In the acute COVID-19 group, HA positively correlated with FIB-4, AST, ALT, LDH, IL-6, and ferritin and negatively with blood oxygen saturation. In the post-COVID group, HA did not correlate with FIB-4, but it was positively associated with higher liver stiffness and ALT.
Conclusion: More than half of acute COVID-19 patients had increased serum HA and FIB-4 related to liver function tests, inflammatory markers, and blood oxygen saturation. It provides evidence for the induction of liver fibrosis by multiple factors during acute COVID-19. Findings also indicate possible liver fibrosis in about 5% of the post-COVID group.

Keywords: COVID-19; Consequences; Hyaluronic acid; Liver fibrosis index; Serological biomarker.