. 2021 Aug 20;13(8):e17328.
doi: 10.7759/cureus.17328. eCollection 2021 Aug.
Secondary Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis in Post-COVID-19 Patients: A Report of Two Cases

Pranjal Kalita 1 , Devina Laishram 1 , Biswajit Dey 1 , Jaya Mishra 1 , Bhupen Barman 2 , Himesh Barman 3



Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a disease that can affect both children and adults. HLH can be categorized as primary or secondary. Secondary HLH (sHLH) may be secondary to various viral infections. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus infection is a pandemic with multi-system involvement. HLH in COVID-19 positive patients is a recognized entity. However, in post-COVID-19 patients who have recovered and are negative by serological tests and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction test may present with sHLH due to dysregulation of the immune system. We highlight this unusual finding of post-COVID-19 sHLH in two cases, who were diagnosed by the new revised H-score.

Keywords: bone marrow; covid-19; immune system; sars-cov-2; secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.