Published: 10 November 2022


Xiangang Huang, Na Kong, Xingcai Zhang, Yihai Cao, Robert Langer & Wei Tao


Messenger RNA (mRNA) is an emerging class of therapeutic agent for the prevention and treatment of a wide range of diseases. The recent success of the two highly efficacious mRNA vaccines produced by Moderna and Pfizer–BioNTech to protect against COVID-19 highlights the huge potential of mRNA technology for revolutionizing life science and medical research. Challenges related to mRNA stability and immunogenicity, as well as in vivo delivery and the ability to cross multiple biological barriers, have been largely addressed by recent progress in mRNA engineering and delivery. In this Review, we present the latest advances and innovations in the growing field of mRNA nanomedicine, in the context of ongoing clinical translation and future directions to improve clinical efficacy.