Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc

. 2022 Nov 17;43:101151.
doi: 10.1016/j.ijcha.2022.101151. eCollection 2022 Dec.
In-hospital mortality of COVID-19 patients hospitalized with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: A meta-analysis

Huzaifa Ahmad Cheema 1 , Muhammad Ehsan 1 , Muhammad Ayyan 1 , Abia Shahid 1 , Minaam Farooq 1 , Muhammad Usman Javed 2 , Hassan Mehmood Lak 3 , Malik Qistas Ahmad 4 , Hafeez Ul Hassan Virk 5 , Vladimir Lakhter 6 , Ka Yiu Lee 7



Introduction: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been associated with an increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events including arteriovenous thrombosis, myocarditis and acute myocardial injury. Relevant literature to date has reported widely varying estimates of mortality, ranging from approximately 2 to 11 times higher odds of mortality in COVID-19-positive STEMI (ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction) patients. Hence, we conducted this meta-analysis to resolve these inconsistencies and assess the impact of COVID-19 infection on mortality and other clinical outcomes in patients presenting with STEMI.
Methods: This meta-analysis was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42021297458) and performed according to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. PubMed and Embase were searched from inception to November 2021 (updated on April 2022) using a search strategy consisting of terms relating to COVID-19, STEMI, and mortality.
Results: We identified 435 studies through our initial search. After screening according to our eligibility criteria, a total of 11 studies were included. Compared with the non-COVID-19 STEMI patients, the in-hospital mortality rate was higher in COVID-19-positive STEMI patients. Similarly, the risk of cardiogenic shock was higher in the COVID-19-positive patients. Length of hospital stay was longer in STEMI patients with COVID-19.
Conclusions: Our study highlights the necessity for early evaluation of COVID-19 status in all STEMI patients followed by risk stratification, prompt reperfusion and more aggressive management of COVID-19-positive patients. Further research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms behind poorer prognosis in such patients.

Keywords: COVID-19; Mortality; SARS-CoV-2; ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.