Curr Mol Med

. 2021 Oct 4.
doi: 10.2174/1566524021666211004110101. Online ahead of print.
The Relation of the Viral Structure of SARS-CoV2, High-Risk Condition, and Plasma Levels of IL-4, IL-10, and IL-15 in COVID-19 Patients compared to SARS and MERS Infections

Leila Mousavizadeh 1 , Ramin Soltani 2 , Kosar Abedini 3 , Sorayya Ghasemi 2



Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) has high mortality due to the widespread infection and the strong immune system reaction. Interleukins (ILs) are among the main immune factors contributing to the deterioration of the immune response and the formation of cytokine storms in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infections.
Introduction: This review article investigated the relationship between virus structure, risk factors, and patient plasma interleukin levels in infections caused by the coronavirus family.
Method: The keywords "interleukin," "coronavirus structure," "plasma," and "risk factors" were the main words searched to find a relationship among different interleukins, coronavirus structures, and risk factors in ISI, PUBMED, SCOPUS, and Google Scholar databases.
Result: Patients with high-risk conditions with independent panels of immune system markers are more susceptible to death caused by SARS-CoV2. IL-4, IL-10, and IL-15 are probably secreted at different levels in patients with coronavirus infections despite the similarity of inflammatory markers during coronavirus infections. SARS-CoV2 and SARS-CoV increase the secretion of IL-4 in the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection, while it remains unchanged in MERS-CoV infection. MERS-CoV infection demonstrates increased IL-10 levels. However, IL-10 levels increase during SARS-CoV infection, and different levels are recorded in SARS-CoV2. MERS-CoV increases IL-15 secretion while its levels remain unchanged in SARS-CoV2.
Conclusion: In conclusion, the different structures of SARS-CoV2, such as length of spike or nonstructural proteins (NSPs), and susceptibility of patients based on their risk factors may lead to differences in immune marker secretion and pathogenicity. Therefore, identifying and controlling interleukin levels can play a significant role in controlling the symptoms and the development of individual-specific treatments.

Keywords: SARS-CoV2; coronavirus structure; immune system; interleukin; plasma; risk factors.