. 2024 Mar 28:e0006424.
doi: 10.1128/mbio.00064-24. Online ahead of print. Unravelling influenza correlates of protection: lessons from human A/H1N1 Challenge

Rebecca Jane Cox 1 2 , Rishi Pathirana 1


Mucosal immunity is important in protecting from upper respiratory tract influenza infection. Human challenge provides a unique model to define correlates of protection with baseline immune responses being correlated to the quantity and length of viral shedding and clinical outcomes. Here, we discuss recent work on mucosal and systemic correlates of protection (R. Bean, L. T. Giurgea, A. Han, L. Czajkowski, et al., mBio 15:e02372-23, 2024, https://doi.org/10.1128/mbio.02372-23) and place it in the context of previous work on mucosal immunity. We also discuss the importance of standardized assays to allow global comparison of relevant immune responses in defining correlates of protection. Correlates of protection are important for designing next-generation broadly protective influenza vaccines.

Keywords: antibody; correlate of protection; mucosal immunity.