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Recognition of Viral RNA by Pattern Recognition Receptors in the Induction of Innate Immunity and Excessive Inflammation During Respiratory Viral Infections

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  • Recognition of Viral RNA by Pattern Recognition Receptors in the Induction of Innate Immunity and Excessive Inflammation During Respiratory Viral Infections

    Viral Immunol. 2017 Jun 13. doi: 10.1089/vim.2016.0178. [Epub ahead of print]
    Recognition of Viral RNA by Pattern Recognition Receptors in the Induction of Innate Immunity and Excessive Inflammation During Respiratory Viral Infections.

    Okamoto M1, Tsukamoto H1, Kouwaki T1, Seya T2, Oshiumi H1,3.
    Author information

    Abstract

    The innate immune system is the first line of defense against virus infection that triggers the expression of type I interferon (IFN) and proinflammatory cytokines. Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns, resulting in the induction of innate immune responses. Viral RNA in endosomes is recognized by Toll-like receptors, and cytoplasmic viral RNA is recognized by RIG-I-like receptors. The host innate immune response is critical for protection against virus infection. However, it has been postulated that an excessive inflammatory response in the lung caused by the innate immune response is harmful to the host and is a cause of lethality during influenza A virus infection. Although the deletion of genes encoding PRRs or proinflammatory cytokines does not improve the mortality of mice infected with influenza A virus, a partial block of the innate immune response is successful in decreasing the mortality rate of mice without a loss of protection against virus infection. In addition, morbidity and mortality rates are influenced by other factors. For example, secondary bacterial infection increases the mortality rate in patients with influenza A virus and in animal models of the disease, and environmental factors, such as cigarette smoke and fine particles, also affect the innate immune response. In this review, we summarize recent findings related to the role of PRRs in innate immune response during respiratory viral infection.


    KEYWORDS:

    innate immunity; interferon; pattern recognition receptors; virus

    PMID: 28609250 DOI: 10.1089/vim.2016.0178
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