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Front Immunol . Anti-RBD IgG antibodies from endemic coronaviruses do not protect against the acquisition of SARS-CoV-2 infection among exposed uninfected individuals

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  • Front Immunol . Anti-RBD IgG antibodies from endemic coronaviruses do not protect against the acquisition of SARS-CoV-2 infection among exposed uninfected individuals

    Front Immunol


    . 2024 May 23:15:1396603.
    doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2024.1396603. eCollection 2024. Anti-RBD IgG antibodies from endemic coronaviruses do not protect against the acquisition of SARS-CoV-2 infection among exposed uninfected individuals

    Flávia Lopes Adami 1 , Mateus Vidigal de Castro 2 3 , Bianca da Silva Almeida 1 , Isabela Pazotti Daher 1 4 , Márcio Massao Yamamoto 1 , Keity Souza Santos 4 5 6 , Mayana Zatz 2 3 , Michel Satya Naslavsky 2 3 , Daniela Santoro Rosa 6 7 , Edecio Cunha-Neto 4 5 6 , Vivian Leite de Oliveira # 4 , Jorge Kalil 4 5 6 , Silvia Beatriz Boscardin # 1 6



    AffiliationsAbstract

    Background: The Coronaviridae family comprises seven viruses known to infect humans, classified into alphacoronaviruses (HCoV-229E and HCoV-NL63) and betacoronaviruses (HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-HKU1), which are considered endemic. Additionally, it includes SARS-CoV (severe acute respiratory syndrome), MERS-CoV (Middle East respiratory syndrome), and the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, responsible for COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 induces severe respiratory complications, particularly in the elderly, immunocompromised individuals and those with underlying diseases. An essential question since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic has been to determine whether prior exposure to seasonal coronaviruses influences immunity or protection against SARS-CoV-2.
    Methods: In this study, we investigated a cohort of 47 couples (N=94), where one partner tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection via real-time PCR while the other remained negative. Plasma samples, collected at least 30 days post-PCR reaction, were assessed using indirect ELISA and competition assays to measure specific antibodies against the receptor-binding domain (RBD) portion of the Spike (S) protein from SARS-CoV-2, HCoV-229E, HCoV-NL63, HCoV-OC43, and HCoV-HKU1.
    Results: IgG antibody levels against the four endemic coronavirus RBD proteins were similar between the PCR-positive and PCR-negative individuals, suggesting that IgG against endemic coronavirus RBD regions was not associated with protection from infection. Moreover, we found no significant IgG antibody cross-reactivity between endemic coronaviruses and SARS-CoV-2 RBDs.
    Conclusions: Taken together, results suggest that anti-RBD antibodies induced by a previous infection with endemic HCoVs do not protect against acquisition of COVID-19 among exposed uninfected individuals.

    Keywords: COVID-19; RBD protein; cross-reactivity; humoral immunity; seasonal coronavirus.

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