Emerg Microbes Infect. 2018 Aug 3;7(1):140. doi: 10.1038/s41426-018-0133-y.
Systemic and mucosal humoral immune responses induced by the JY-adjuvanted nasal spray H7N9 vaccine in mice.

Xu J1,2, Li S2, Wang X2, Liu J2, Shan P2, Zhou Y3, Zhao J4, Wang Z2, Xu C5, Chen M6, Chen Z7, Zhao K8, Qu D9.
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Since the first case of human avian influenza A (H7N9) virus infection in 2013, five H7N9 epidemics have occurred in China, all of which caused severe diseases, including pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome, and the fatality rates of these epidemics were as high as 30-40%. To control the prevalence of H7N9 influenza, an effective vaccine is urgently needed. In the present study, we used chitosan and recombinant human interleukin-2 as an adjuvant (JY) to promote the systemic and mucosal immune responses induced by the H7N9 vaccine. Mice were immunized intranasally with the inactivated split influenza A (H7N9) virus (A/Shanghai/02/2013) vaccine with or without JY. The hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers of mice immunized with the JY-adjuvanted vaccine were significantly higher than those of mice immunized with the vaccine without adjuvant (21.11  9.58 vs. 5.04  3, P < 0.05). The JY-adjuvanted H7N9 nasal spray vaccine induced higher HI titers (8  0.82 vs. 6.7  0.67, P = 0.0035) than those did the poly (I:C)-adjuvanted H7N9 vaccine or the LTB-adjuvanted H7N9 vaccine (8  0.82 vs. 6.9  0.88, P = 0.0186). The optimal immunization regimen for the nasal spray H7N9 vaccine was determined to be a 21-day interval between the primary immunization and booster, with a dose of 4.5 μg hemagglutinin per mouse. The immunogenicities of the nasal spray H7N9 vaccine and intramuscular vaccine (containing only the inactivated split virus) were compared in mice. Two doses of the nasal spray H7N9 vaccine induced higher titers of HI (6.7  0.67 vs. 5.3  1.16, P = 0.004) and anti-HA IgG in sera (19.26  0.67 vs. 13.97  0.82, P < 0.0001) and of anti-HA sIgA (7.13  2.54 vs. 0, P = 0.0000) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) than one dose of intramuscular H7N9 vaccine 3 weeks after the last immunization. However, when we immunized the mice with two doses of both vaccines separately, the nasal spray H7N9 vaccine induced higher titers of anti-HA IgG (19.26  0.67 vs. 17.56  0.57, P < 0.0001) and anti-HA sIgA (7.13  2.54 vs. 4.02  0.33, P = 0.0026) than did the intramuscular H7N9 vaccine, and there was no difference in HI titer between the two groups (P = 0.3745). This finding indicates that the JY-adjuvanted nasal spray H7N9 vaccine induced not only the systemic immune response but also a local mucosal response, which may improve the efficacy of H7N9 influenza prevention through respiratory tract transmission.

PMID: 30076293 PMCID: PMC6076272 DOI: 10.1038/s41426-018-0133-y
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